Friday, August 1, 2014

Diary of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: November 7, 1860

Lincoln is elected. Overwhelming majorities in New York and Pennsylvania. This is a great victory; one can hardly overrate its importance. It is the redemption of the country. Freedom is triumphant.

SOURCE: Samuel Longfellow, Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow With Extracts from His Journals and Correspondence, Volume 2, p. 358

General John Bell Hood to James A. Seddon, October 19, 1864

OCTOBER 19, 1864.
Hon. J. A. SEDDON,
Richmond:

Headquarters will be to-morrow at Gadsden, where I hope not to be delayed more than forty-eight hours, when I shall move for the Tennessee River.

J. B. HOOD,
General.
(Same to General Bragg.)

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 39, Part 2 (Serial No. 79), p. 831; John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat, p. 268

John Brown to his Children, March 20, 1852

Akron, Ohio, March 20, 1852.

Dear Children, — I reached home on the 18th at evening, meeting with father on the way, who went home with me and left us yesterday; he kept me so busied that I had no time to write you yesterday. I found all in usual health but Frederick, who has one of his poor turns again; it is not severe, and we hope will not be so. I now enclose the Flanders lease. You will discover that the bargain I had with him for the second year is simply an extension of the time made on the back of it, except that for the last year I was to pay the taxes. Owen says he thinks the tooth fell out of the harrow while lying on a pile of sticks and old boards near the corner of the barn, between that and the house; and that if you do not find it among the rubbish, nor in the house or barn, — over the door from the barn into the back shed, — he cannot tell where it will be found. Expecting to hear from you again soon,

I remain your affectionate father,
John Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 148-9

Diary of Rutherford B. Hayes: July 24, 1861


A. M. our regiment was reviewed by the Governor and Major-General Fremont. It was a gratifying scene. The Colonel (Fremont — I must always think of the man of fifty-six [as] the colonel) looked well. How he inspires confidence and affection in the masses of people! The night before I was introduced to him at the American. He is a romantic, rather perhaps than a great, character. But he is loyal, brave, and persevering beyond all compare. Lucy and Laura were present.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 43

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, November 17, 1862

November 17th.

I am more concerned again about clothing, especially shoes and blankets, than I expected to be, from what I heard. Colonel Boteler is doing much, and has been the means of greatly contributing to the comfort of our men.  . . . Our gracious Heavenly Father strikingly manifests his kindness to me by disposing people to bestow presents upon me.

. . . And so God, my exceeding great joy, is continually showering His blessings upon me, an unworthy creature.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 365-6

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 27, 1863

Culpeper Court House, Va., September 27, 1863.

We are having lovely weather at present; our camps are beautifully situated at the foot of the Blue Ridge, with the mountains in view, with pure air and plenty of good water; the best country in Virginia we have yet been in.

I had a visit yesterday from the Rev. Mr. Coles, Episcopal minister at the village, who told me he had seen Mr. Wilmer some few weeks since, and he had talked a great deal of me, and told him I had been his parishioner. He says Mr. Wilmer is not connected with the army, and has no church, but occupies himself in works of charity, and when he saw him he was on his way to visit the sick and wounded of the Confederate army, after its return from Pennsylvania.

I have tried, but unsuccessfully, to get some news of the Wises.1 Mr. Wise’s command undoubtedly went with Longstreet to Tennessee, but whether he went I am not able to ascertain.
_______________

1 General Henry A. Wise and son, brother-in-law and nephew of Mrs. Meade.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 151

Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, October 26, 1862

Headquarters First Brigade,
Fourth Div., Seventeenth Army Corps,
Natchez, Oct 26, 1863.

By former letters you will understand my heading and dates; lest, however, they should not have been received, I will recapitulate, by the remark that I have been relieved from the command of the Second Brigade, First Division, now employed at garrison duty in Vicksburg, and have been assigned to the command of the First Brigade, Fourth Division. My headquarters at present at Natchez and the same quarters I formerly occupied. This change is entirely agreeable to me, the command equally good.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 343

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Friday, October 2, 1863

The weather is quite cool for this time of year in the "Sunny South." There is no news of any importance. Things are very quiet.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 145

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: May 20, 1863

We remained here until this date having the finest of times, when orders were received to pack up and report to the regiment at Fort Marshall. Orders having been received for the regiment to report to General Robert H. Milroy at Winchester, Virginia.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 15

125th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Camp Taylor, Cleveland, Ohio, October 6, 1862. Moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, January 3, 1863; thence moved to Louisville, Ky., and duty there till January 28. Attached to District of Western Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, to February, 1863. Franklin, Tenn., Army of Kentucky, Dept. of the Cumberland, to June, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1864. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 4th Army Corps and Dept. of Texas, to September, 1865.

SERVICE. – Moved from Louisville, Ky., to Nashville, Tenn., January 28, 1863; thence to Franklin, Tenn., March 5, and duty there till June. Repulse of attack on Franklin March 9. Moved to Triune June 2, thence to Murfreesboro, Tenn. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. At Hillsboro July 3-August 5. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Occupation of Chattanooga September 9. Lee and Gordon's Mills September 11-13. Near Lafayette September 14. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Colwell's Ford November 19. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Pursuit to Graysville November 26-27. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Operations in East Tennessee till April, 1864. Charlestown December 28, 1863. Operations about Dandridge January 16-17, 1864. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge and Dalton May 8-13. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Adairsville May 17. Near Kingston May 18-19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Mills July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Buckhead, Nancy's Creek, June 18. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama October 3-November 3. Nashville Campaign November-December. Columbia, Duck River, November 24-27. Spring Hill November 29. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Moved to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there till March, 1865. At Knoxville, Blue Springs and Nashville till June. Moved to New Orleans, La., June 16; thence to Texas and duty there till September. Mustered out September 25, 1865.
Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 104 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 114 Enlisted men by disease. Total 225.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1548-9

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Requisition by Governor Henry A. Wise for Albert Hazlett, November 1, 1859

The Commonwealth Of Virginia,

To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:

Know you, that our Governor, in pursuance of authority vested in the Executive by law, hath constituted and appointed William N. Kelly the Agent of this Commonwealth, to demand and receive from the Executive authority of the State of Pennsylvania a Fugitive from Justice, called William Harrison alias Albert Hazlett, alias E. H. or some name not known, & to deliver him to the proper authority of this State, to be dealt with according to Law.

{SEAL}

Witness, Henry A. Wise our said Governor, this first day of November A.D. 1859 and in the eighty fourth year of the Commonwealth.

By the Governor.
Henry A. Wise
George W. Munford
Secretary of the Commonwealth.


[Endorsed]

Requisition for Harrison alias Haslett

In obedience to the Warrant of Wm P Parker by Gov of Penna I have granted my warrant to the within named Wm N. Kelly to take the person of Wm Harrison, alias Albert Hazlet and deliver him to the authorities of the State Virginia.

Witness my hand as Presg Judge of the 9 Judicial district of Penna the 5 Nov 1869

S. H. Graham.

SOURCE: Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Third Series, Volume 1, p. 513-4

Governor Henry A. Wise to Robert Tyler, November 6, 1859

Richmond, Va., November 6, 1859.

My Dear Sir: Thank you for yours. Please cause this provision of our laws to be published generally in your papers: Code of Virginia, chapter 17, title 10, section 18, — “The governor shall not grant a pardon in any case before conviction, nor to any person convicted of treason against the Commonwealth, except with the consent of the General Assembly, declared by joint resolution. Neither shall he grant a reprieve to any person convicted of treason for a longer period than until the end of the session of the General Assembly during which it may be granted, or until the end of the succeeding session when it is granted during the recess.”

Brown is convicted of treason and sentenced for 2d of December, and General Assembly meets the 5th. I could reprieve only for ninety days, as session of General Assembly is limited for that time only.

Yours truly,
Henry A. Wise.

SOURCE: Lyon Gardiner Tyler, The Letters and Times of the Tylers, Volume 2, p. 554

Major-General William T. Sherman to Lieutenant-General Ulysses S. Grant, November 2, 1864

HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
In the Field, Rome, Ga., November 2, 1864.
Lieut. Gen. U.S. GRANT,
City Point, Va.:

Your dispatch is received.* If I could hope to overhaul Hood I would turn against him with my whole force. Then he retreats to the southwest, drawing him as a decoy from Georgia, which is his chief object. If he ventures north of the Tennessee I may turn in that direction and endeavor to get between him and his line of retreat, but thus far he has not gone above the Tennessee. Thomas will have a force strong enough to prevent his reaching any country in which we have an interest, and he has orders if Hood turns to follow me to push for Selma. No single army can catch him, and I am convinced the best results will result from defeating Jeff. Davis' cherished plan of making me leave Georgia by maneuvering. Thus far I have confined my efforts to thwart his plans, and reduced my baggage so that I can pick up and start in any direction, but I would regard a pursuit of Hood as useless; still if he attempts to invade Middle Tennessee I will hold Decatur and be prepared to move in that direction, but unless I let go Atlanta my force will not be equal to his.

W. T. SHERMAN,
 Major-General, Commanding.
­­­_______________


SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 39, Part 2 (Serial No. 79), p. 594-5; John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat, p. 265-6

John Brown to his Children, January 23, 1852

Troy, N. Y., Jan. 23, 1852.

Dear Children, — I returned here on the evening of the 19th inst., having left Akron on the 14th, the date of your letter to John. I was very glad to hear from you again in that way, not having received anything from you while at home. I left all in usual health, and as comfortable as could be expected; but am afflicted with you on account of your little boy. Hope to hear by return mail that you are all well. As in this trouble you are only tasting of a cup I have had to drink deeply, and very often, I need not tell you how fully I can sympathize with you in your anxiety.  . . . How long we shall continue here is beyond our ability to foresee, but think it very probable that if you write us by return mail we shall get your letter. Something may possibly happen that may enable us (or one of us) to go and see you, but do not look for us. I should feel it a great privilege if I could. We seem to be getting along well with our business so far, but progress miserably slow. My journeys back and forth this winter have been very tedious. If you find it difficult for you to pay for Douglass' paper, I wish you would let me know, as I know I took liberty in ordering it continued. You have been very kind in helping me, and I do not mean to make myself a burden.

Your affectionate father,
John Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 148

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, July 24, 1861

Camp Chase, July 24, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — I am surrounded by the bustle and confusion attendant upon a hurried leaving of camp. We go tomorrow at 5 A. M. to Zanesville by railroad, thence down the Muskingum on steamboats to Marietta, and on the Ohio to Ripley Landing, a short distance from Point Pieasant in Virginia. We are to be a part of General Rosecrans' force against Wise.

Last night I had a good chat with Fremont. He is a hero. All his words and acts inspire enthusiasm and confidence. He and the governor reviewed our regiment today. Lucy, Laura, and many friends were present. It was a stirring scene. I wish you could have been here. You would subscribe heartily to General Fremont. Good-bye. My saddest feeling — my almost only sad feeling — is leaving you in such bad health.

Affectionately,
R. B. Hayes.

P. S. — Always send me full sheets of paper — the blank sheet is so useful. The use and scarcity of paper is appalling.

S. Birchard.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 42-3

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, November 11, 1862

November 11th.

. . . Tell Colonel E––– that I am glad to see he has so pleasant a post as Charlotte, and that I would rather be stationed there1 than anywhere else in the Confederacy. Colonel Boteler deserves the lasting gratitude of the country for having done so much towards clothing our men.
_______________

1 Where his wife then was.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 365

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 24, 1863

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, September 24, 1863.

The last time I wrote I told you of my having referred to Washington the question of a further advance. As I expected, no decisive answer was sent to me, but I was told to act in accordance with my own judgment. The next thing I was summoned to Washington and informed that the President considered my army too large for a merely defensive one, and proposed to take a portion of it away. I objected and reasoned against this, and left Washington with the belief that the President was satisfied. I had just arranged the programme for a movement, and was about issuing the orders, when orders came from Washington, taking troops away. Of this I do not complain. The President is the best judge of where the armies can be best employed, and if he chooses to place this army strictly on the defensive, I have no right to object or murmur. I was in Washington from 11 p. m. Tuesday till 1 p. m. Wednesday; saw no one but the President, Mr. Stanton and General Halleck; was treated very courteously by all. I told the President and General Halleck that if they thought I was too slow or prudent, to put some one else in my place. Halleck smiled very significantly, and said he had no doubt I would be rejoiced to be relieved, but there was no such good luck for me. I cannot very well tell you all that transpired; the intelligence, by no means favorable, had been received from Rosecrans, and it was evident, without any one knowing what exactly might or could be done, that there still existed a feverish anxiety that I should try and do something. Now that I have been weakened, I presume the country will not be so exigeante.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 150-1

Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, October 22, 1863

Headquarters Second Brigade,
First Div., Seventeenth Army Corps,
Vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 22, 1863.
My Dear Wife:

I propose sending to you to-day, per Adams’ Express Company, a box of pictures.

The group will be interesting to strangers, containing as it does, Generals Grant and Thomas; the other gentlemen are members of General Grant's staff — Captain Jane, Colonel Duff, Colonel Riggin, and Captain Carncross, the latter aid to General Thomas.

I congratulate you upon the results of the late election, partial news of which has this night reached me. The soldiers of Ohio will begin to feel that they may yet find a home outside their camp. I think Mr. Pugh and his tool, Mr. Vallandigham, have gone to their political grave, from which there will be no resurrection.

Major General U. S. Grant and Officers
New Orleans, 1863

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 342-3

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Thursday, October 1, 1863

We had brigade inspection this morning at 7 o'clock, by General McArthur. Colonel Hall of our regiment is in command. There were three regiments of infantry, one of cavalry and three batteries. In the afternoon I was on fatigue duty, and part of the time in a heavy rain; this is our third successive day of rain.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 145

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: April 29, 1863

Our company was ordered for guard duty to guard the railroad bridge over the Gunpowder River, on the Baltimore & Philadelphia Road. A very pleasant change and much enjoyed in the fine early spring weather. The fishing and sailing were fine. Many boats at that point we were allowed to use. Many attempts had been made to burn the bridge. It had to be kept well guarded. (It was later destroyed by rebel guerillas making a raid through Maryland.)

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 15

124th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Cleveland, Ohio, and mustered in January 1, 1863. Left State for Louisville, Ky., January 1; thence moved to Elizabethtown, Ky., and duty there till February 10, 1863. Attached to District of Western Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio, to February, 1863. Franklin, Tenn., Army of Kentucky, Dept. of the Cumberland, to June, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--Moved to Nashville, Tenn., February 10, 1863; thence to Franklin February 21, and duty there till June. Action at Thompson's Station, Spring Hill, March 4-5. Thompson's Station June 2. Middle Tennessee (or Tullahoma) Campaign June 23-July 7. Camp at Manchester till August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. At Poe's Tavern August 20-September 9. Passage of the Tennessee River September 10. Lee and Gordon's Mills September 11-13. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Reopening Tennessee River October 26-29. Brown's Ferry October 27. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. March to relief of Knoxville, Tenn., November 28-December 8. Operations in East Tennessee till April, 1864. Operations about Dandridge January 16-17. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge and Dalton, Ga., May 8-13. Battle of Resaca May 14-16. Adairsville May 17. Near Kingston May 18-19. Near Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Pickett's Mills May 27. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Pursuit of Hood into Alabama October 3-26. At Athens, Ga., October 31 to November 23. March to Columbia, Tenn., November 23-24. Columbia, Duck River, November 24-27. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Moved to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there till March, 1865. Operations in East Tennessee March 15-April 22. Duty at Strawberry Plains and Nashville till June. Mustered out June 16, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 78 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 124 Enlisted men by disease. Total 210.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1548

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Governor William F. Packer to Governor Henry A. Wise, December 1, 1859


State of Pennsylvania,
Executive Chamber. Harrisburg, Dec. 1, 1859.

To His Excellency, the Governor of Virginia, Richmond, Va.:

Sir — Your letter of the 25th, having been missent to Harrisonburg, Virginia, was not received until this morning. Of all the desperadoes to whom you refer, not a man, so far as I can learn, was a citizen of Pennsylvania; nor was their rendezvous (which you say was unobstructed by guards or otherwise), in this State, but in Maryland or Virginia. In relation to them, Pennsylvania has done her duty. Virginia has no right to anticipate that she will not do so in the future. The information you have received in regard to a conspiracy to rescue John Brown, will, undoubtedly, be found, in the sequel, utterly and entirely without foundation, so far as Pennsylvania is concerned. Nor will we permit any portion of our territory, along our borders, or elsewhere, to be made a depot, a rendezvous, or a refuge, for lawless desperadoes, from other States, who may seek to make war upon our southern neighbors. When that contingency shall happen, the constitutional and confederate duty of Pennsylvania shall be performed; and, under all circumstances, she will take care to see that her honor is fully vindicated.

WM. F. PACKER

SOURCE: George Edward Reed, Editor, Pennsylvania Archives, Fourth Series, Volume 8, Papers of the Governors, 1858-1871, p. 198-9

Governor Henry A. Wise to Governor William F. Packer, November 25, 1859

Richmond, Va., November 25, 1859.
To His Excellency, the Governor of Pennsylvania:

Dear Sir — I respectfully send to you the information contained in a letter to the President of the United States, of which the enclosed is a copy. I submit it to you in the confidence that you will faithfully co-operate with the authorities of this State in preserving the peace of our coterminous borders. Necessity may compel us to pursue invaders of our jurisdiction into yours; if so, you may be assured that it will be done with no disrespect to the sovereignty of your State. But this State expects the confederate duty to be observed, of guarding your territory from becoming dangerous to our peace and safety, by affording places of depot and rendezvous to lawless desperadoes who may seek to make war upon our people.

With the highest respect,
I am, sir, yours truly,
HENRY A. WISE

SOURCE: George Edward Reed, Editor, Pennsylvania Archives, Fourth Series, Volume 8, Papers of the Governors, 1858-1871, p. 197

Governor Henry A. Wise to James Buchanan, November 25, 1859

Richmond, Va., November 25, 1859.

To His Excellency, James Buchanan, President of the United States:

Sir — I have information from various quarters, upon which I rely, that a conspiracy, of formidable extent in means and numbers, is formed in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and other States, to rescue John Brown and his associates, prisoners at Charlestown, Va. The information is specific enough to be reliable. It convinces me that an attempt will be made to rescue the prisoners, and, if that fails, then to seize citizens of this State as hostages and victims in case of execution. The execution will take place next Friday as certainly as that Virginia can and will enforce her laws. I have been obliged to call out one thousand men, who are now under arms, and, if necessary, shall call out the whole available force of the State to carry into effect the sentence of our laws on the 2d and 16th proximo. Places in Maryland, Ohio and Pennsylvania have been occupied as depots and rendezvous by these desperadoes, unobstructed by guards or otherwise, to invade this State, and we are kept in continual apprehension of outrages from fire and rapine on our borders. I apprise you of these facts in order that you may take steps to preserve peace between the States. I protest that my purpose is peaceful, and that I disclaim all threats when I say, with all the might of meaning, that if another invasion assails this State or its citizens from any quarter, I will pursue the invaders wherever they may go into any territory, and punish them wherever arms can reach them.

I shall send copies of this to the Governors of Maryland, Ohio and Pennsylvania.

With due respect and consideration,

Yours truly,
HENRY A. WISE

SOURCE: George Edward Reed, Editor, Pennsylvania Archives, Fourth Series, Volume 8, Papers of the Governors, 1858-1871, p. 197-8

Lieutenant-General Ulysses S. Grant to Major-General William T. Sherman, November 1, 1864 – 6 p.m.

CITY POINT, VA., November 1, 18646 p.m.
Major-General SHERMAN,
Atlanta, Ga.:

Do you not think it advisable now that Hood has gone so far north to entirely settle him before starting on your proposed campaign? With Hood's army destroyed you can go where you please with impunity. I believed, and still believe, that if you had started south whilst Hood was in the neighborhood of you he would have been forced to go after you. Now that he is so far away, he might look upon the chase as useless and go in one direction whilst you are pushing in the other. If you can see the chance for destroying Hood's army, attend to that first and make your other move secondary.

U.S. GRANT,
Lieutenant-General.

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 39, Part 2 (Serial No. 79), p. 576; John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat, p. 265

John Brown to Mary Ann Day Brown, December 22, 1851

Boston, Mass., Dec. 22, 1851.

Dear Mary, —  . . . There is an unusual amount of very interesting things happening in this and other countries at present, and no one can foresee what is yet to follow. The great excitement produced by the coming of Kossuth, and the last news of a new revolution in France, with the prospect that all Europe will soon again be in a blaze, seems to have taken all by surprise. I have only to say in regard to those things, I rejoice in them, from the full belief that God is carrying out his eternal purpose in them all. I hope the boys will be particularly careful to have no waste of feed of any kind, for I am strongly impressed with the idea that a long, severe winter is before us.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 146

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, July 23, 1861

Camp Chase, July 23, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — We are in the midst of the excitement produced by the disastrous panic near Washington. We expect it will occasion a very early movement of our regiment. We shall, perhaps, be ordered to the Kanawha line. We certainly shall, unless the recent defeat shall change the plan of the campaign. Colonel DePuy's regiment is on that line, so that the Fremont companies are likely to be in the same body with us. Their association will be pleasant enough, but there are two or three regiments with them in which I have very little confidence; viz., the Kentucky regiments “falsely so called.” We are yet raw troops, but I think we shall soon grow to it.

The Washington affair is greatly to be regretted; unless speedily repaired, it will lengthen the war materially. The panic of the troops does not strike me as remarkable. You recollect the French army in the neighborhood of the Austrians were seized with a panic, followed by a flight of many miles, caused merely by a runaway mule and cart and "nobody hurt." The same soldiers won the battle of Solferino a few days ago [later]. But I do think the commanding officers ought not to have led fresh levies against an enemy entrenched on his own ground. Gradual advances, fortifying as he went, strikes me as a more prudent policy. But it is easy to find fault. The lesson will have its uses. It will test the stuff our people are made of. If we are a solid people, as I believe we are, this reverse will stiffen their backs. They will be willing to make greater efforts and sacrifices.

We worked late last night getting our accoutrements ready. In the hurry of preparations to depart, I may not be able to write you before I go. Good-bye.

Sincerely,
R. B. Hayes.
S. Birchard.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 42

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, November 10, 1862

November 10th.

Colonel A. R. Boteler telegraphs me from Richmond that arrangements are made for supplying my command with blankets. Yesterday about seventeen hundred and fifty were distributed in Winchester. There has been much suffering in my command for want of blankets and shoes, especially the latter.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 365

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 19, 1863

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, September 19, 1863.

At present I am very busy. I made the advance I did under the belief that Lee had sent away a large portion of his army, and would perhaps, if threatened, retire to Richmond. I find, however, he evinces no disposition to do so, but is, on the contrary, posted in a very strong position behind the Rapidan, where he can hold me in check, and render it very difficult to pierce his line or turn his position. Under these circumstances I have referred the question to Washington.

To-day John Minor Botts, who lives in this vicinity, came to see me and told me Beckham had been at his house a few days ago (before we advanced), and spoke in the most enthusiastic terms of me; so that Beckham is not changed. A Mr. Pendleton also, who was in Congress and knew your father, called, and spoke of Mr. Joseph R. Ingersoll, who had been at his house. Both these gentlemen are Union men.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 150

Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith to Eliza Walter Smith, October 20, 1863

Headquarters Second Brigade,
First Div., Seventeenth Army Corps,
Vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 20, 1863.
My Dear Mother:

General Grant received your letter and of this I have written before. He is now gone, I don't know whither — flitted with his staff and surroundings before I had come back, as the swallows flit in the fall. I do not think you have got a right estimate of Sherman. You call him “slow, cautious, almost to a fault.” On the contrary, he is as quick as lightning, the most rapid thinker, actor, writer, I ever came in contact with — proud and high-spirited as an Arab horse. Grant is slow and cautious, and sure and lucky. They are both good men. Men you would admire if you knew them, and men who upon first blush you would be marvellously deceived in.

You ask about the tribute from the old “54th.” I understand the boys have made arrangements to fit me out; but haven’t received the articles. Somebody said that they were sumptuous. I suppose they would get the best that money could buy, for they think a heap of “old Kilby” — the only name by which I am known in the Fifteenth Army Corps. Strangers used to come and ask for Kilby, and for a long time I rarely heard the name of Smith as applied to myself. I don't know but what their presents have been burnt up or sunk in the river. There has been a great deal of loss lately. When they come, I will let you know and tell you all about them.

Enclosed herewith find copy of a letter written by General Sherman to the 13th Regulars on the occasion of the death of his son at Memphis. I saw a copy by accident to-day, and together with the brief notice that his son had died, is the only intelligence I have. He had his boy with him, a bright, active little fellow, who rode with him wherever he went, and who was a great pet with his own old regiment, the 13th Regulars. You know General Sherman came into the service as colonel of this regiment at the outset of the war. The death must have been sudden, and you perceive by the tenor of the letter how deeply he feels it. I do assure you that we find every day in the service, that “the bravest are the tenderest, the loving are the daring.” I will forward your letter to him, and perhaps you had better address him again on the occasion of his bereavement. I am sure he is a dear friend of mine, and in the chances of this war, calculating upon his position and mine, it is hardly probable we shall meet again. Like him, “on, on, I must go, till I meet a soldier's fate, or see my country rise superior to all factions, till its flag is adored and respected by ourselves and all the powers on earth,''1 and now our paths are slightly divergent. Can you imagine it, even as I write, the enclosed order is handed me, and received without one pang of regret. I copy verbatim. You may understand the chances and changes of a soldier's life. The darky says, “here to-morrow and gone to-day.”


Special Orders
No. 236.

headquarters Seventeenth Army Corps,
Dept. Of The Tennessee,
vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 20, 1863.

Brig.-Genl. E. S. Dennis, U. S. Vols., will report forthwith to Genl. McArthur, to be assigned to command of Second Brigade, First Division, and will relieve Brig.-Genl. T. K. Smith.

Brig.-Genl. T. K. Smith, on being relieved from command of Second Brigade, First Division, will proceed forthwith to Natchez, Miss., and report to Brig.-Genl. M. M. Crocker, commanding Fourth Division, for assignment to command of Brigade in Fourth Division.

By order of Maj.-Genl. Mcpherson,
W. T. Clark,
A. A. General.
Brig.-Genl. T. K. Smith,
Com'g Second Brigade, First Division.


Thus you perceive, having licked the Second Brigade into shape, I am assigned elsewhere. Meanwhile, pray for me, and thank God that everything has transpired to take me out of the filthy God-forsaken hole on a hill. My next will be from Natchez and will contain full directions how to address me. Keep writing, and enclose my letters with request to forward to Major-Genl. James B. McPherson, commanding Seventeenth Army Corps, Department of the Tennessee, Vicksburg, Miss. He is my warm, intimate, personal friend, and will see that all come safe to hand. I enclose you his carte. He is very handsome, a thorough soldier, brave as Caesar, young, a bachelor, and — engaged to be married.

Genl. M. M. Crocker, to whom I am about to report, is a most excellent gentleman and eke a soldier, thank God! graduate of the Military Academy of West Point, also an intimate of mine and friend. Somehow or other, the West Pointers all take to me, and by the grace of God I find my way among soldiers. You can't understand all this, but it is most delightful to have a soldier, a real soldier, for a commander and associate. Natchez, by this time is a second home to me. I know a heap of people and have some good friends even among the '”Secesh.” I may be there a day, a month, a year, nobody knows and nobody cares. I can pack, and “get up and dust” as quickly as any of them.
_______________

1 General Sherman's letter to Capt. C. C. Smith 13th Regulars.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 340-2

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Wednesday, September 30, 1863

It rained all day. I was on fatigue, helping to clean up the review ground. We are to have general inspection in the next few days by General McArthur, our division commander, and General McPherson, corps commander. Our company is returning to its old-time form and numbers.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 145

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: April 1863

Having been an inmate in the hospital for three months, at my own request, I was allowed to join my company, located at Fort Marshall, east end of Baltimore. Reported to Lieutenant Merwin, commanding company. He would not allow me to go on duty. Wished me to remain at Regimental Hospital for a while until I could get stronger.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 15

123rd Ohio Infantry

Organized at Monroeville, Ohio, and mustered in September 24, 1862. Left State for Parkersburg, W. Va., October 16, 1862; thence moved to Clarksburg October 20. Attached to Railroad Division, West Virginia, to January, 1863. Defences of the Upper Potomac, 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to March, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 8th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of the Susquehanna, to July, 1863. McReynolds' Command, Martinsburg, W, Va., to December, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of West Virginia, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, West Virginia, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade, Independent Division, 24th Army Corps, Army of the James, to June, 1865.

SERVICE.--March from Clarksburg to Buckhannon, W. Va., October 27-30, 1862, and to Beverly November 3. Moved to Huttonville November 8; to Webster November 16, and to New Creek November 18. Duty at New Creek till December 12. Moved to Petersburg December 12. March to relief of Moorefield January 3, 1863. Duty at Romney January 10 to March 4, and at Winchester, Va., till June. Reconnoissance toward Wardensville and Strasburg April 20. Operations in Shenandoah Valley April 22-29. Scout to Strasburg April 25-30. Battle of Winchester June 13-15. Regiment surrendered by Colonel Ely, Commanding Brigade, June 15, 1863. Exchanged August, 1863. Provost duty at Martinsburg, W. Va., October, 1863, to March, 1864. Duty along Baltimore & Ohio Railroad from Harper's Ferry to Monocacy Junction till April. Sigel's Expedition from Martinsburg to New Market April 30-May 16. Battle of New Market May 16. Advance to Staunton May 24-June 5. Action at Piedmont June 5. Occupation of Staunton June 6. Hunter's Raid on Lynchburg June 10-July 1. Lynchburg June 17-18. Moved to Shenandoah Valley July 12-15. Snicker's Ferry July 15. Battle of Winchester, Kernstown, July 24. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28. Berryville September 3. Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Cedar Creek October 13. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty at Kernstown till December. Moved to Washington, D.C., December 19; thence to Aikens' Landing, Va. Siege operations against Richmond and Petersburg December, 1864, to April, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Hatcher's Run March 29-31. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3-9. Rice's Station April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Duty in the Dept. of Virginia till June. Mustered out June 12, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 1 Officer and 90 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 92 Enlisted men by disease. Total 187.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1548

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 16, 1863

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, September 16, 1863.

The enclosed correspondence will explain itself. The day I received Mr. Young's letter, there was visiting at my camp the Hon. John Covode, of Pennsylvania, and Colonel Puleston, a friend of Governor Curtin. Both these gentlemen were present at the presentation and heard my remarks; both are ardent Republicans, yet they admitted they did not hear me make any reference to election day; on the contrary, admired the skill with which I praised Curtin without alluding to his political position. I do not know what Mr. Young will say or do, but it is his fault, or rather that of his reporter, and not mine, if he has been placed in a false position.

The enemy seem disposed to keep quiet the other side of the Rapidan, and to let me hold the country between that river and the Rappahannock, which I took from them on Sunday, including Culpeper Court House. I have now got as far as Pope was last year when he fought the battle of Cedar Mountain. I trust I will have better luck than he had. I am now waiting to know what they in Washington want done. Lee has certainly sent away a third of his army, but he has enough left to bother me in advancing, and though I have no doubt I can make him fall back, yet my force is insufficient to take advantage of his retiring, as I could not follow him to the fortifications of Richmond with the small army I have.

At the time Mr. Covode was here, he was accompanied by a Judge Carter, of Ohio, recently appointed Chief Judge of the new court created in the District of Columbia by the last Congress. These gentlemen spent the night with me, and I had a long talk on national affairs, and I saw what I was before pretty well convinced of, that there was not only little prospect of any adjustment of our civil war, but apparently no idea of how it was to be carried on. The draft is confessedly a failure. Instead of three hundred thousand men, it will not produce over twenty-five thousand, and they mostly worthless. There is no volunteering, and this time next year the whole of this army of veterans goes out of service, and no visible source of resupply. And yet no one seems to realize this state of affairs, but talks of going to war with England, France, and the rest of the world, as if our power was illimitable. Well, Heaven will doubtless in good time bring all things right.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 149

Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, October 14, 1863

Headquarters Second Brigade,
First Div., Seventeenth Army Corps,
Vicksburg, Miss., Oct. 14, 1863.
My Dear Wife:

My last advices to you have been from Natchez. Since then, I have hurriedly changed my base. How long I shall remain here will depend upon other moves and circumstances. You must not suffer yourself to be worried for me if many days at a time elapse without intelligence from me; of course, communication won't be continually interrupted. I left very pleasant and luxurious quarters at Natchez, and some good and kind friends, to come into the field and the bivouac, soldiers' fates, and we make the best of it.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 339-40

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Tuesday, September 29, 1863

I came in from picket this morning in a rain which continued all day. We learned that a boat twenty miles up the river from Vicksburg, burned and sank last night in midstream, with a large number of lives lost. The boat was loaded with provisions for the army here at Vicksburg.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 145

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: January 6, 1863

Last night, while on guard duty, I was taken suddenly ill. Had to be relieved from duty. Placed in an old barn, used for a field hospital, with a leaky old roof, the rain coming down on me. Colonel, I was informed, came to the barn, saw my condition, ordered me carried to a general hospital known as Stuart's Mansion, afterward named the Jarvis Hospital, at the west end of Baltimore. At the hospital I was examined by a surgeon who pronounced my illness typhoid fever and the pleurisy. I was placed in Ward 4. I was very ill. My side was cupped for the pleurisy. Received good care from the nurses, one woman and four men, two by day and night. My comrades of Company C called on me quite often until the company was ordered to Fort Marshall at the east end of Baltimore, about five miles from the Hospital. In good quarters. All were very sorry I could not be with them. While in the hospital the officers of the company called on me. I also received a call from our good Governor Buckingham. Promised friends at home that he would call on me, see that I was having good care. His home was in Norwich.

I told the Governor that I had no fault to find and for him to tell the folks at home that I was receiving good care. Also received calls from Mrs. Henry Bingham, the wife of a comrade of our company and an old friend at home. Comrade Bingham was very ill in the same hospital with me. On the wall, at the head of our beds, was a card with our name, company, and regiment. The loyal people of Baltimore often visited the hospital, furnishing entertainment for the patients in songs and recitations. Was very much enjoyed and appreciated as the time dragged slowly along.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 14

122nd Ohio Infantry

Organized at Zanesville, Ohio, September 30, 1862. Company "C" October 3, Company "G" October 5, Company "F" October 6 and Companies "I" and "K" October 8, 1862. Left State for Parkersburg, W. Va., October 23; thence moved to Clarksburg and to New Creek November 15. Attached to Railroad Division, West Virginia, to January, 1863. Milroy's Command, Winchester, Va., 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to February, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 8th Army Corps. to June, 1863. Elliott's Command, 8th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, and Army of the Shenandoah, Middle Military Division, to June, 1865.

SERVICE. – Duty at New Creek, Va., November 15 to December 28, 1862. Expedition up the south branch of Potomac River December 28, 1862, to January 1, 1863. Moved to Romney, W. Va., and duty there till March 17, 1863. Skirmish near Romney February 16. Moved to Winchester March 17, and duty in that vicinity till June. Reconnoissance toward Wardensville and Strasburg April 20. Battle of Winchester June 13-15. Retreat to Harper's Ferry June 15-17. Garrison, Maryland Heights, till July 1. Guard stores to Georgetown, thence moved to Frederick, Md., July 1-5. Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va., July 5-24. Action at Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. Duty at New York City during draft disturbances August 17-September 5. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Kelly's Ford November 7. Brandy Station November 8. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Payne's Farm November 27. Demonstrations on the Rapidan February 6-7, 1864. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James River May 3-June 15. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Spottsylvania May 8-12; Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient, "Bloody Angle," May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 17-July 6. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Moved to Baltimore, Md., July 6; thence to Monocacy July 8. Battle of Monocacy Junction, Md., July 9. (Cover retreat.) Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 29. Charlestown August 21, 22 and 29. Battle of Opequan, Winchester, September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty at Kernstown till December. Skirmish at Kernstown November 10. Moved to Washington, D.C., December 3; thence to Petersburg, Va. Siege of Petersburg, Va., December 6, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9, 1865. Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3-9. Sailor's Creek April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. March to Danville April 17-27, and duty there till May. Moved to Richmond, Va., May 16; thence to Washington, D.C., May 24-June 1. Corps Review June 9. Mustered out June 26, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 86 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 137 Enlisted men by disease. Total 230.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1547-8

Monday, July 28, 2014

John Brown to John Brown Jr., March 24, 1851

Vernon, Oneida Co., N. Y., March 24, 1851.

Dear Son John, — I now enclose draft on New York for fifty dollars, which I think you can dispose of to some of the merchants for a premium at this time in the season. I shall pay you the balance as soon as I can; but it may be out of my power until after we sell our wool, which I think there is a prospect now of doing early. I hope to get through here so as to be on our way again to Ohio before the week closes, but want you and Jason both to hold on and take the best possible care of the flock until I do get on, at any rate. I wrote you last week that the family is on the road: the boys are driving on the cattle, and my wife and the little girls are at Oneida Depot, waiting for me to go on with them.1

Your affectionate father,
John Brown.

1 The family were removing from North Elba to Akron, leaving Ruth and her husband, Henry Thompson, in the Adirondac woods.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 145

Diary of Major Rutherford B. Hayes: July 23, 1861- 6 A.M.

This extra* was handed me on our parade ground last evening about 6 P. M. by my brother-in-law, Dr. Joe Webb, who had just galloped out from the city on my sorrel. We had heard the first rumor of a great defeat, but this gave us the details. A routed army, heavy loss, demoralization, on our side; a great victory, confidence, and enthusiasm, on the other, were the natural results to be expected. Washington in danger, its capture probable, if the enemy had genius. These were the ideas I was filled with.

But so far as we were concerned all was readiness and energy. Colonel Matthews and myself superintended the opening and distribution of cartridge-boxes, etc., etc., until late at night that our regiment might be ready to march at a moment's warning. Slept badly. Meditated on the great disaster. On Lucy probably hastening to Cincinnati to comfort and be with her mother. I dreamed I was in Washington, Union men leaving in haste, the enemy advancing to take the city, its capture hourly expected. My own determination and feelings when awake were all as I would wish. A sense of duty excited to a warmer and more resolute pitch.

This morning I rose at the first tap of reveille and went out on the parade-ground. Soon came the morning papers correcting and modifying the first exaggerated reports. There was a great panic, but if the morning report is reliable, the loss is not very heavy; the army is again in position. The lesson is a severe one. It may be a useful one. Raw troops should not be sent to attack an enemy entrenched on its own ground unless under most peculiar circumstances. Gradual approach with fortifications as they proceeded would have won the day.

Last evening Adjutant-General Buckingham took tea with Colonel Scammon. My mind was full of the great disaster. They talked of schoolboy times at West Point; gave the bill of fare of different days — beef on Sunday, fish on etc., etc. — anecdotes of Billy Cozzens, the cook or steward, never once alluding to the events just announced of which we were all full.

July 12, Lucy and Birch and Webb came up to Columbus. They spent a few days in camp, she remaining over night but once. They will probably remain until we leave here.


Mrs. Matthews and Willie left today (23rd). With her daughter Jennie, they have spent two or three days in camp.

Continuing my narrative. — In the place of Colonel Rosecrans, promoted to brigadier-general, Colonel Scammon is appointed to command our regiment. He is a gentleman of military education and experience. Amiable and friendly with us — an intelligent, agreeable gentleman; but not well fitted for volunteer command; and I fear somewhat deficient in health and vigor of nerve. We shall find him an entertaining head of our mess of field officers. — After some ups and downs we have succeeded in getting for our surgeon my brother-in-law, Dr. Joseph T. Webb. Our field officers' mess consists of Colonel Scammon, Lieutenant-Colonel Matthews, Dr. Webb, and myself.
_______________

* Pasted in the Diary is the report of the disaster at Manassas Junction and the retreat of the Union army, clipped from the Ohio State Journal extra.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 40-1

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, October 20, 1862

October 20th.

Although I greatly desire to see our much-prized Winchester friends, it has not been my privilege to visit the town since last May.  . . . Last night was very cold, but my good friend Dr. Hunter McGuire secured a camp-stove for me, and in consequence, to-day, I am comparatively quite comfortable. Don't send me any more socks, as the kind ladies have given me more than I could probably wear out in two years. God, through kind friends, is showering blessings upon me. . . . Let the soldiers have all your blankets.1

Don't trouble yourself about representations that are made of your husband. These things are earthly and transitory. There are real and glorious blessings, I trust, in reserve for us beyond this life. It is best for us to keep our eyes fixed upon the throne of God and the realities of a more glorious existence beyond the verge of time. It is gratifying to be beloved and to have our conduct approved by our fellow-men, but this is not worthy to be compared with the glory that is in reservation for us in the presence of our glorified Redeemer. Let us endeavor to adorn the doctrine of Christ our Saviour in all things, knowing that there awaits us “a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.” I would not relinquish the slightest diminution of that glory for all this world can give. My prayer is that such may ever be the feeling of my heart. It appears to me that it would be better for you not to have anything written about me. Let us follow the teaching of inspiration — “Let another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth: a stranger, and not thine own lips.” I appreciate the loving interest that prompted such a desire in my precious darling.  . . . You have not forgotten my little intimation that we might meet before the end of the year, but I am afraid now that your esposo will not be able to leave his command. However, all this is in the hands of the Most High, and my prayer is that He will direct all for His own glory. Should I be prevented from going to see my precious little wife, and mother should grow worse, I wish you to remain with her. In addition to the comfort it would give her, it would also gratify me to know that she was comforted by your being with her. She has my prayers that it may please our Heavenly Father to restore her again to perfect health. Do not send me any more handkerchiefs, socks, or gloves, as I trust I have enough to last until peace. You think you can remember the names of all the ladies who make presents to me, but you haven't heard near all of them. An old lady in Tennessee, of about eighty years, sent me a pair of socks. A few days since a friend in Winchester presented me with a beautiful bridle and martingale for a general officer, according to the Army Regulations. Mr. Porter, of Jefferson, sent me a roll of gray cloth for a suit of clothes, and friends are continually sending things to contribute to my comfort. I mention all this merely to show you how much kindness has been shown me, and to give you renewed cause for gratitude. If I only had you with me in my evenings, it would be such a comfort! I hope it may be my privilege to be in Winchester this winter. The people are so kind, and take a great interest in my esposita, and that gratifies me.  . . . I am in a Sibley tent, which is of a beautiful conical shape, and I am sure you would enjoy being in it for a while.
_______________

1 This order was fulfilled, and finally all his carpets were sent to the army as covering for the suffering soldiers.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 363-5

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 13, 1863

Headquarters Army Of The Potomac, September 13, 1863.

A few days ago some scouts I had sent across the river returned and reported that Lee's army was moving back to Richmond. They asserted positively that that portion near Fredericksburg had actually gone. I did not and do not much rely on their story, though I could not doubt but that a portion of his force had been sent away for some purpose either to re-inforce Beauregard at Charleston or Bragg in the South West.

It was necessary, however, that I should make some effort to ascertain what was going on, so to-day I sent Pleasanton, with all the cavalry, supported by Warren's Corps (Second), to see what they could find out. Pleasanton crossed the river early, and immediately was engaged with the enemy's cavalry, and has been fighting them all day. The result is that we have driven them from Culpeper Court House, and three miles beyond, have captured three guns and over fifty prisoners, and Warren is now in Culpeper, some nine miles in front of the Rappahannock. Still the great question as to whether Lee is withdrawing is unsettled, though Pleasanton sends word that all the information that he is able to pick up goes to support the rumor that he is falling back. Should it prove true, I suppose some movement on my part will be necessary; but what, I can't say, as with my limited force I don't see how I can advance much farther, and there is no probability of their permitting me to go to the James River, as it uncovers Washington.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 148-9

Brigadier-General Thomas Kilby Smith to Eliza Water Smith, October 7, 1863

Headquarters Second Brigade,
First Div., Seventeenth Army Corps,
Natchez, Oct. 7, 1863.
My Dear Mother:

I knew you would write me on the 23d; felt that even as I was writing you on the selfsame day, perhaps at the same hour, our spirits were in commune. What is there in all this world so sweet, so pure, so holy as a mother's love? Darling mother, I love you with all my heart and all my mind, and all my strength, but my love for you is nothing in comparison with yours for me that has continued so constant, so unwavering, for all these years, these long, long years which yet are nothing to look back upon.

It is true as you remark, I have travelled much, very much in the past season — have traversed many, many miles by land and water; ten times up and down the river when the banks were infested by guerrillas, never shot into once, other boats preceding and succeeding me constantly attacked. I seem to have borne nearly a charmed life. God has been very good to me. I see by the papers, as well as by your letter, that Bill Lytle has gone under at last; poor fellow, his was a gallant spirit, and he has gone where the good soldiers go. The best death to die — “We tell his doom without a sigh, for he is freedom’s now and fame’s.”

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 339

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Monday, September 28, 1863

I went out on picket today, on the public highway from Vicksburg to Warrington. We have to maintain a heavy picket with strong reserve at all the public highways leading from this place.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 145

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: January 2, 1863

Late last night, our second night out, pickets began firing. We were called out and soon had line formed. The supposed enemy proved to be Union scouts with orders for the Colonel to return to Baltimore. The enemy did not come into Maryland. The command was complimented for the way it turned out into line ready for duty. This morning, in line by the railroad waiting for the train. After a long wait in the cold the dirty train of box cars came along which we soon boarded. On to Baltimore. Arriving in the city, ordered to the west end, going into camp in Stuart's woods. A surprise and disappointment as we expected to return to Camp Emory, our good quarters, in good warm barracks. Many disappointments come to soldiers.

In our camp was located Battery L, 5th U. S. Regulars. The battery boys did not like being inside the guard line of volunteers. Would run the guard line, making trouble for us. A sergeant of the battery, under the influence of drink, attempted to run the guard. Was halted, grabbed the sentinel's musket, resulted in the sergeant's being badly wounded. The wooden plug in the muzzle, with the bullet, passed through the sergeant's body. He was not killed. (After a time he recovered.) After that event the battery boys and the 18th Regiment were friends. All were sorry over the event. No one blamed the sentinel. Cold rain and snow making the life of a soldier a very disagreeable one in tents, sleeping on the ground. Deep mud and very sticky all through our camp.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 13-4