Saturday, April 19, 2014

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Saturday, June 20, 1863

By order of General Grant all the artillery opened upon Vicksburg this morning, and the bombardment continued throughout the day. It is reported that the rebels have lost six hundred, killed and wounded, many of these being killed during the first two hours of the firing. Our left is holding quite tight. The sky was hazy today and the heat at times was very oppressive.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 123

22nd Ohio Infantry – 3 Months


Organized at Camp Jackson, Columbus, Ohio, April and May, 1861. Moved to Parkersburg, W. Va., May 30, thence to Burning Springs and Elizabethtown, and to Three Forks. Attached to Cox's Brigade, District of the Kanawha, W. Va. Operations against guerrillas in Gilmer, Calhoun and Braxton Counties and railroad guard duty till August. Mustered out August 19, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1506

22nd Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Benton Barracks, Mo., as the 13th Missouri Infantry and mustered in November 5, 1861. Ordered to Cairo, Ill., January 26, 1862. Attached to 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of West Tennessee and Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1862. Designation of Regiment changed to 22nd Ohio Infantry July 7, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Corinth, Miss., to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Corinth, Miss., to October, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, District of Corinth, Miss., to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, District of Corinth, Miss., 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, District of Corinth, 17th Army Corps, to January, 1863. 4th Brigade, District of Jackson, 16th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to March, 1863, 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 16th Army Corps, to May, 1863. Kimball's Provisional Division, 16th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 2nd Brigade, Kimball's Division, District of Eastern Arkansas, to August, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Arkansas Expedition, to January, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to March, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 7th Army Corps, Dept. of Arkansas, to May, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 7th Army Corps, to February, 1865. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 7th Army Corps, to August, 1865.

SERVICE. – Reconnoissance from Smithland, Ky., toward Fort Henry, Tenn., January 31-February 2. Operations against Fort Henry, Tenn., February 2-6. Capture of Fort Henry February 6. Investment and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 12-16. Expedition to Clarksville and Nashville, Tenn., February 22-March 5. Moved to Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., March 14-17. Battle of Shiloh April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville June 1-6. Duty at Corinth, Miss., till October. Expedition to Iuka, Miss., September 17-19. Battle of Corinth October 3-4. Pursuit to Ripley October 5-12. Box Ford, Hatchie River October 7 (3 Cos.). Near Ruckersville October 7 (Detachment). Near Ripley October 7 (Detachment). Garrison at Trenton and duty along line of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad till March, 1863. Near Yorkville January 28, 1863. Dyersburg January 30. Moved to Jackson, Tenn., March 11, thence to Corinth, Miss., April 29, and return to Jackson, Tenn., May 3. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn., May 20, thence to Vicksburg, Miss., June 1. Siege of Vicksburg June 3-July 4. Surrender of Vicksburg July 4. Ordered to Helena, Ark., July 16. Steele's Expedition to Little Rock, Ark., August 13-September 10. Bayou Fourche and capture of Little Rock September 10. Duty at Little Rock till October 28. Ordered to Brownsville October 28, and duty there till October 24, 1864. Near Searcy May 18, 1864. Near Brownsville July 13. Near Searcy August 13. Ordered to Camp Dennison, Ohio, October 24. Mustered out November 18, 1864. Veterans and Recruits consolidated to two Companies and mustered out August 28, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 36 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 167 Enlisted men by disease. Total 207.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1506-7

Friday, April 18, 2014

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Friday, June 19, 1863

It is again quite warm. Every morning at about 2 o'clock we have to form a line of battle, so that if the rebels should come in upon us we would be ready for them; but I do not think they will come. On account of the very poor water here, several of the boys are down with the fever and ague.

 Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 123

21st Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Organized at Camp Taylor, Cleveland, Tenn., and mustered in April 27, 1861. Moved to Gallipolis, Ohio, May 23, and duty there till July. Attached to Cox's Kanawha Brigade, West Virginia, to August. Reconnoissance up the Kanawha River July 7. Expedition to Guyandotte July 9 (Co. "F"). Scarey Creek July 14-17. Mustered out August 12, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1506

21st Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Findlay, Ohio, and mustered in September 19, 1861. Left State for Nicholasville, Ky., October 2. Attached to Thomas' Command, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1861. 9th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 9th Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Ohio, to July, 1862. 7th Independent Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 7th Brigade, 8th Division, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Center 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 14th Army Corps, to October, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 14th Army Corps, to June, 1865. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 14th Army Corps, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. – Action at Ivy's Mountain, Ky., November 8, 1861. Try Mountain and Piketown November 8-9. Duty at Bacon Creek and Green River, Ky., till February, 1862. Advance on Bowling Green, Ky., February 10-15, and on Nashville, Tenn., February 22-25. Occupation of Nashville February 25-March 17. Advance on Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 17-19. Advance on Huntsville, Ala., April 4-11. Capture of Huntsville April 11. (Pittinger's Raid on Georgia State Railroad April 7-12, Detachment.) Near Pulaski May 1. At Athens May 28 to August 28. Action on Richland Creek near Pulaski August 27. March to Nashville August 29-September 2. Siege of Nashville September 12-November 7. Murfreesboro Road November 8. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Davis Cross Roads or Dug Gap September 11. Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19-21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Pursuit to Graysville November 26-27. Rossville Gap November 26. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Reconnoissance of Dalton, Ga., February 22-27, 1864 (Non-Veterans). Rocky Faced Ridge and Buzzard's Roost Gap February 23-25 (Non-Veterans). Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Buzzard's Roost Gap May 8-9. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2, Pine Hill June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Vining Station July 9-11. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Utoy Creek August 5-7. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama April 29-November 3. Near Atlanta October 2. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Jacksonboro December 11. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Taylor's Hole Creek, Averysboro, N. C., March 16. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 19-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 19. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June, and duty there till July. Mustered out July 25, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 6 Officers and 166 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 218 Enlisted men by disease. Total 392.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1506

Thursday, April 17, 2014

General Robert E. Lee to John C. Breckinridge, February 19, 1865

HEADQUARTERS, PETERSBURG, February 19, 1865.

HIS EXCELLENCY J. C. BRECKINRIDGE,
Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.

SIR: The accounts received today from South and North Carolina are unfavorable. General Beauregard reports from Winnsborough that four corps of the enemy are advancing on that place, tearing up the Charlotte Railroad, and they will probably reach Charlotte by the 24th and before he can concentrate his troops there. He states that General Sherman will doubtless move thence on Greensboro, Danville, and Petersburg, or unite with General Schofield at Raleigh or Weldon.

General Bragg reports that General Schofield is now preparing to advance from New Berne to Goldsboro, and that a strong expedition is moving against Weldon Railroad at Rocky Mount. He says that little or no assistance can be received from the State of North Carolina — that exemptions and reorganizations under late laws have disbanded the State forces, and that they will not be ready for the field for some time.

I do not see how Sherman can make the march anticipated by General Beauregard, but he seems to have everything his own way; which is calculated to cause apprehension. General Beauregard does not say what he proposes or what he can do. I do not know where his troops are or on what lines they are moving. His dispatches only give movements of the enemy. He has a difficult task to perform under present circumstances, and one of his best officers, General Hardee, is incapacitated by sickness. I have also heard that his own health is indifferent, though he has never so stated. Should his strength give way, there is no one on duty in the department that could replace him, nor have I any one to send there. Gen. J. E. Johnston is the only officer whom I know who has the confidence of the army and people, and if he was ordered to report to me I would place him there on duty. It is necessary to bring out all our strength, and, I fear, to unite our armies, as separately they do not seem able to make head against the enemy. Everything should be destroyed that cannot be removed out of the reach of Generals Sherman and Schofield. Provisions must be accumulated in Virginia, and every man in all the States must be brought off. I fear it may be necessary to abandon all our cities, and preparation should be made for this contingency.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
R. E. Lee,
General.

SOURCE: John William Jones, Life and Letters of Robert Edward Lee: Soldier and Man, p. 354-5

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Thursday, June 18, 1863

We have had strong wind and thunder for three days now, but no rain. I was on duty today for the first time in two and a half months, for while I was cook I had no other duty. Skirmishing and cannonading are still going on. News came that our army is in the rear of Port Hudson and that fighting is going on there, I wrote a letter today for John Ford, of my company. Ford had shot off his right thumb by an accidental discharge of his rifle, and when it came time for him to write to his sweetheart, he called upon me to do it for him.1
__________

 1 I undertook the job for Ford, but did some perspiring before I finished the letter, and I would never undertake it again. The letter went through and he received a nice one in reply. — A. G. D.

 Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 122

20th Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Organized at Columbus, Ohio, April and May, 1861. Mustered in May 23, 1861. Ordered to West Virginia, and attached to Kelly's Command. Action at Richter June 23. Pursuit of Garnett July 15-16. Duty along Baltimore & Ohio Railroad till August. Mustered out August 23, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1505

20th Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Columbus, Ohio, August 19 to September 21, 1861. Moved to Camp King near Covington, Ky., and mustered in October 21. Duty at Covington and Newport, Ky., till February 11, 1862. Attached to 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee, February to May, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Army Tennessee, to July, 1862. Unattached, District of Jackson, Tenn., to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 17th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee and Army of Georgia, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. – Investment and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 14-16, 1862. Expedition toward Purdy and operations about Crump's Landing, Tenn., March 9-14. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Guard duty at Pittsburg Landing till June, and at Bolivar, Tenn., till September. Action at Bolivar August 30. Duty in the District of Jackson till November. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign November 2, 1862, to January 10, 1863. Action at Holly Springs, Miss., December 21, 1862. Lafayette, Tenn., January 14, 1863. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., January 26, thence to Lake Providence, La., February 22, and duty there till April. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson, Miss., May 1. Forty Hills and Hankinson's Ferry May 3-4. Battle of Raymond May 12. Jackson May 14. Champion's Hill May 16. Siege of Vicksburg May 18 to July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19-22. Surrender of Vicksburg July 4. Duty at Vicksburg till February, 1864. Stevenson's Expedition to Monroe, La., August 20-September 2, 1863. Expedition to Canton October 14-20. Bogue Chitto Creek October 17. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Meridian Campaign February 3-March 2. Canton February 26. Veterans on furlough March and April. Moved to Clifton, Tenn., thence march to Ackworth, Ga., April 29-June 9. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign June 9 to September 8. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Assault on Kenesaw June 27, Nickajack Creek July 2-5. Howell's Ferry July 5. Chattahoochie River July 6-17. Leggett's or Bald Hill July 20-21. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Sandtown August 28. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 2. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Pocotaligo, S.C., January 14. Barker's Mills, Whippy Swamp, February 2. Salkehatchie Swamp February 3-5. South Edisto River February 9. North Edisto River February 11-13. Columbia February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 20. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June. Mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 18, 1865. (A detachment participated in the Battle of Nashville, Tenn., December 15-16, 1864.)

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 87 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 267 Enlisted men by disease. Total 360.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1505-6

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Diary of Gideon Welles: Saturday, September 20, 1862

Am troubled by Preble's conduct. There must be a stop put to the timid, hesitating, and I fear sometimes traitorous course of some of our officers. Tenderness, remonstrance, reproof do no good. Preble is not a traitor, but loyal. An educated, gentlemanly officer of a distinguished family and more than ordinary acquirements, but wants promptitude, energy, decision, audacity, perhaps courage. I am inclined to believe, however, an excess of reading, and a fear that he might violate etiquette, some point of international law, or that he should give offense to Great Britain, whose insolence the State Department fears and deprecates and submits to with all humility, had its influence. He paused at a critical moment to reflect on what he had read and the state of affairs. A man less versed in books would have sunk the pirate if she did not stop when challenged, regardless of her colors. No Englishman had a right to approach and pass the sentinel on duty. Preble was placed there to prevent intercourse, ____ was a sentinel to watch the Rebels and all others, — and no Englishman had a right to trespass. A board of officers would be likely to excuse him, as in the case of ____ and ____,1 on account of his amiable qualities, general intelligence, and good intentions. The time has arrived when these derelictions must not go unpunished. I should have preferred that some other man should have been punished. I have had the subject under consideration with some of the best minds I could consult, and found no difference of opinion. I then took the dispatches to the President and submitted them to him. He said promptly: “Dismiss him. If that is your opinion, it is mine. I will do it.” Secretary Seward and Attorney-General Bates, each of whom I casually met, advised dismissal. It is painful, but an unavoidable duty. I am sorry for Preble, but shall be sorry for my country if it is not done. Its effect upon the Navy will be more salutary than were he and fifty like him to fall in battle.

Commander Joe Smith,2 who died at his post when the ill-fated Congress went down from the assault of the Merrimac, perished in the line of duty. I have never been satisfied with the conduct of the flag-officer3 in those days, who was absent in the waters of North Carolina, — purposely and unnecessarily absent, in my apprehension, through fear of the Merrimac, which he knew was completed, and ready to come out. It was like dread of the new Merrimac at Richmond, which was nearly ready, that led him finally to resign his squadron command. He has wordy pretensions, some capacity, but no hard courage. There is a clan of such men in the Navy, varying in shade and degree, who in long years of peace have been students and acquired position, but whose real traits are not generally understood. The Department is compelled to give them commands, and at the same time is held responsible for their weakness, errors, and want of fighting qualities.

Nothing conclusive from the army. The Rebels have crossed the river without being hurt or seriously molested, — much in character with the general army management of the war. Little is said on the subject. Stanton makes an occasional sneering remark, Chase now and then a better one, but there is no general review, inquiry, or discussion. There is no abatement of hostility to McClellan.
__________

1 No names in original.
2 Lieutenant Joseph B. Smith.
3 Captain, afterwards Rear-Admiral Louis M. Goldsborough.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 141-2

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 19, 1862 – 10:30 a.m.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
 September 19, 1862 10.30 a.m. (Received 11 a.m.)
 Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
General-in-Chief:

Pleasonton is driving the enemy across the river. Our victory was complete. The enemy is driven back into Virginia. Maryland and Pennsylvania are now safe.

 GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
Major-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 330

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 17, 1862 – 1:20 p.m.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
September 17, 1862 1.20 p.m. (Received 5 p.m.)
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
General-in-Chief:

Please take military possession of the Chambersburg and Hagerstown Railroad, that our ammunition and supplies may be hurried up without delay. We are in the midst of the most terrible battle of the war – perhaps of history. Thus far it looks well, but I have great odds against me. Hurry up all the troops possible. Our loss has been terrific, but we have gained much ground. I have thrown the mass of the army on the left flank. Burnside is now attacking the right, and I hold my small reserve, consisting of Porter's (Fifth) corps, ready to attack the center as soon as the flank movements are developed. I hope that God will give us a glorious victory.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
Major-general, Commanding.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 312

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Wednesday, June 17, 1863

Our mortar boats are shelling the rebels day and night, and the constant roar of cannon is something dreadful to listen to. Our regiment drew some clothing from the quartermaster today. We just learned that we are to remain out here on picket. The boys are having easy times picking blackberries and plums. They are quite plentiful, and come as a Godsend to us. Water is becoming very scarce, for the branches which we have to depend upon have now stopped running, and all we can get is the water left in the sink holes in the creek bottom.

SOURCE: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 122


19th Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Organized at Cleveland, Ohio, April and May, 1861. Moved to Columbus, Ohio, May 27 and mustered in May 29, to date from April 27, 1861. Companies "A" and "B" moved to Bellaire, Ohio, May 27, and guard duty there till June 3, and at Glover's Gap and Manington till June 20. Regiment at Zainesville till June 20. Moved to Parkersburg, W. Va., June 20-23. Attached to Rosecran's Brigade, Army of West Virginia. Moved to Clarksburg June 25. March to Buckhannon June 29-30. Occupation of Buckhannon June 30. Campaign in West Virginia July 6-17. Battle of Rich Mountain July 11. Moved to Columbus, Ohio, July 23-27. Mustered out by Companies: "A" August 27, "B" and "C" August 29, "D" August 30, "E" August 28, "F" August 30, "G" August 31, "H" August 18, "I" August 30, "K" August 31, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1505

19th Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Alliance, Ohio, September 25, 1861. Moved to Camp Dennison, Ohio, November 6, thence to Louisville, Ky., November 16. Attached to 11th Brigade, Army of the Ohio, to December, 1861. 11th Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Ohio, to March, 1862. 11th Brigade, 5th Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 11th Brigade, 5th Division, 2nd Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Left Wing 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 21st Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, to June, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 4th Army Corps, to August, 1865. Dept. of Texas, to October, 1865.

SERVICE. – Duty at Camp Jenkins, Louisville, Lebanon, Renick's Creek, Jamestown and Greasy Creek till February, 1862. March to Nashville, Tenn., February 15-March 8, and to Savannah, Tenn., March 18-April 6. Battle of Shiloh, Tenn., April 6-7, Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 6. Buell's Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. March to Battle Creek, Ala., and duty there till August 21. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 21-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-15. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8 (Reserve). March to Nashville, Tenn., October 16-November 7, and duty there till December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro, Tenn., December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 22-July 7. Liberty Gap June 22-24. At McMinnville till August 16. Passage of the Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-20. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Pursuit to Graysville November 26-27. March to relief of Knoxville November 28-December 8. Operations in East Tennessee December, 1863, to April, 1864. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May l-September 8, Duty at Parker's Gap May 6-18. Advance to the Etowah May 18-23. Cassville May 19. Advance on Dallas May 22-25. Operations on Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Pickett's Mills May 27. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Mountain June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Operations against Hood, in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. Nashville Campaign November-December. Columbia, Duck River, November 24-27. Battle of Franklin November 30. Battle of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Moved to Huntsville, Ala., and duty there till March, 1865. Expedition from Whitesburg February 17. Operations in East Tennessee March 15-April 22. Duty at Nashville till June. Moved to New Orleans, La., June 16, thence to Texas. Duty at Green Lake till September 11, and at San Antonio till October 21. Mustered out October 24, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 7 Officers and 104 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 6 Officers and 162 Enlisted men by disease. Total 279.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1505

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Tuesday, June 16, 1863

We have had several days of very warm weather which became very hot yesterday, but today there is a high wind accompanied by thunder. The Eleventh Iowa signed the payroll today for two months' pay. Cannon have been roaring all day and the place still holds out. General Grant still feels confident that he can take the place, and the army is in fine spirits. Only a few tents are used now, and they are only for the sick and wounded.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 122

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 15, 1862 – 8 a.m.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
Bolivar, Md., September 15, 1862 8 a.m.
(Received 12.25 p.m.)
 Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
General-in- Chief:

I have just learned from General Hooker, in the advance, who states that the information is perfectly reliable that the enemy is making for Shepherdstown in a perfect panic; and General Lee last night stated publicly that he must admit they had been shockingly whipped. I am hurrying everything forward to endeavor to press their retreat to the utmost.

 GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
Major-General.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 294

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 15, 1862 – 10 a.m.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
Bolivar, Md., September 15, 1862  10 a.m.
(Received 1.20 p.m.)
 Major-General HALLECK,
General-in- Chief, U. S. Army:

There are already about 700 rebel prisoners at Frederick, under very insufficient guard, and I shall probably send in a larger number to-day. It would be well to have them either paroled or otherwise disposed of, as Frederick is an inconvenient place for them. Information this moment received completely confirms the rout and demoralization of the rebel army. General Lee is reported wounded and Garland killed. Hooker alone has over 1,000 more prisoners. It is stated that Lee gives his loss as 15,000. We are following as rapidly as the men can move.

 GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
Major-general, Commanding.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 294-5

Abraham Lincoln to Major-General George B. McClellan, September 15, 1862 – 2:45 p.m.

WAR DEPARTMENT
Washington, September 15, 1862 2.45 p.m.
Major-General MCCLELLAN:

Your dispatch of to-day received. God bless you and all with you. Destroy the rebel army if possible.

A. LINCOLN.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 1 (Serial No. 27), p. 53

Abraham Lincoln to J. K. DuBois, September 15, 1862 – 3 p.m.

WASHINGTON, D. C., September 15, 1862 3 p.m.
Hon. J. K. DuBOIS,  Springfield, Ill.:

I now consider it safe to say that General McClellan has gained a great victory over the great rebel army in Maryland, between Fredericktown and Hagerstown. He is now pursuing the flying foe.

 A. LINCOLN.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 295

18th Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Companies "A," "C" and "E" enrolled at Ironton, Ohio, April 22, 1861; Company "B" at Marietta April 27; Company "D" at McArthur April 18; Company "F" at Gallipolis April 22; Company "I" at Jackson April 24; Company "K" at Beverly April 23, 1861. Regiment organized at Parkersburg and organization perfected May 29, 1861. Companies sent to different points on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and guard railroad and trains between Parkersburg and Clarksburg, W. Va., till August. Mustered out at Columbus, Ohio, August 28, 1861, expiration of term.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1504

18th Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Athens, Ohio, August 16 to September 28, 1861. Moved to Camp Dennison, Ohio, and organization there completed November 4, 1861. Moved to Louisville, Ky., November 6, thence to Elizabethtown, Ky., November 15. Attached to 8th Brigade, Army of the Ohio to December, 1861. 8th Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Ohio, to July, 1862. Unattached, Railroad Guard, Army Ohio, to September, 1862. 29th Brigade, 8th Division, Army Ohio, to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, Center 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 14th Army Corps, to October, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 14th Army Corps, to November, 1863. Engineer Brigade, Dept. of the Cumberland, to November, 1864.

SERVICE. – Duty at Elizabethtown and Bacon Creek, Ky., November, 1861, to February, 1862. Advance on Bowling Green, Ky., February 10-15, and on Nashville, Tenn., February 18-25. Occupation of Nashville, Tenn., February 25-March 18. Reconnoissance to Shelbyville, Tullahoma and McMinnville March 25-28. To Fayetteville April 7. Expedition to Huntsville, Ala., April 10-11. Capture of Huntsville April 11. Advance on and capture of Decatur April 11-14. Operations near Athens, Limestone Bridge, Mooresville and Elk River May 1-2. Near Pulaski and near Bridgeport May 1. Moved to Fayetteville May 31. Negley's Expedition to Chattanooga June 1-15. At Battle Creek till July 11. Guard duty along Tennessee & Alabama Railroad from Tullahoma to McMinnville till September. Short Mountain Road and McMinnville August 29 (Cos. "A" and "I"). Retreat to Nashville, Tenn. Siege of Nashville September 12-November 7. Near Lavergne October 7. Duty at Nashville till December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Davis Cross Roads or Dug Gap September 11. Battle of Chickamauga September 19 21. Rossville Gap September 21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Reopening Tennessee River October 26-29. Brown's Ferry October 27.  Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Engaged in Engineer duty at Chattanooga till October 20, 1864. Mustered out November 9, 1864.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 72 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 107 Enlisted men by disease. Total 184.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1504-5

18th Ohio Veteran Infantry

Organized at Chattanooga, Tenn., by consolidation of the Veteran detachments of the 1st, 2nd, 18th, 24th and 35th Ohio Infantry October 31, 1864. Attached to Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, to November, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division, District of the Etowah, Dept. of the Cumberland, to July, 1865. District of Augusta, Ga., to October, 1865.

SERVICE. – Occupation of Nashville, Tenn., during Hood's investment December 1-15. Battles of Nashville December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Duty at Chattanooga January 10 to April, 1865, and at Fort Phelps till July. Guard and provost duty at Augusta, Ga., till October. Mustered out at Augusta, Ga., October 9, and discharged at Columbus, Ohio, October 22, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 19 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 53 Enlisted men by disease. Total 74.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1505

Monday, April 14, 2014

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Monday, June 15, 1863

Our brigade is all broken up, most of it being on picket duty facing Johnston's army and acting as a reserve, and doing police duty between the two lines of battle. Johnston is reported to be out on the Big Black river with about ten thousand men, in an attempt to get into Vicksburg, but he's afraid to come for fear of getting whipped. The boys are having fine times picking blackberries and plums. I quit cooking for the captain, and was recommended as a first-class cook. John Lett took my place as cook for the officers.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 122

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 14, 1862 – 9:40 p.m.

HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE POTOMAC,
Three miles beyond Middletown, Md., Sept. 14, 1862 9.40 p.m.
(Received 1 a.m., 15th.)
Major-General HALLECK,
General-in- Chief:

After a very severe engagement, the corps of Hooker and Reno have carried the heights commanding the Hagerstown road. The troops behaved magnificently. They never fought better. Franklin has been hotly engaged on the extreme left. I do not yet know the result, except that the firing indicated progress on his part. The action continued until after dark, and terminated leaving us in possession of the entire crest. It has been a glorious victory. I cannot yet tell whether the enemy will retreat during the night or appear in increased force in the morning. I am hurrying up everything from the rear, to be prepared for any eventuality. I regret to add that the gallant and able General Reno is killed.

GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
[Major-General.]

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 289

17th Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Organized at Lancaster, Ohio, April 20, 1861. Moved to Benwood, Ohio, thence to Parkersburg, W. Va., April 20-23. Attached to Rosecrans' Brigade, W. Va., to July, 1861. 2nd Brigade, Army of Occupation, West Virginia, to August, 1861.

SERVICE. – Railroad guard duty and operating against guerrillas in Jackson County till July. (2 Companies garrison Ravenswood till July 10.) Skirmish at Glenville July 7. West Virginia Campaign July 7-17. Regiment concentrated at Buckhannon. Expedition to Button July 15-20. Duty at Button till August 3. Left front for Zanesville, Ohio, August 3. Mustered out August 15, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1504

17th Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Camp Dennison, Ohio, August 30, 1861. Ordered to Camp Dick Robinson, Ky., September 30, and duty there till October 19. March to Wild Cat October 19-21. Action at Camp Wild Cat, Rockcastle Hills, October 21. Attached to 1st Brigade, Army of the Ohio, November to December, 1861. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Army of the Ohio, to September, 1862. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 3rd Army Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November, 1862. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, Center 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January, 1863. 1st Brigade, 3rd Division, 14th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland and Army of Georgia, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. – Operations about Mill Springs and Somerset, Ky., December 1-13, 1861. Advance on Camp Hamilton January 1-17, 1862. Battle of Mill Springs January 19-20. Moved from Mill Springs to Louisville, Ky., February 10-16, thence to Nashville, Tenn., February 18-March 2, and duty there till March 20. March to Savannah, Tenn., March 20-April 8. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. Pursuit to Booneville May 31-June 6. Buell's Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee June to August. Duty at Iuka, Miss., and Tuscumbia, Ala. March to Louisville, Ky., in pursuit of Bragg August 20-September 26. Pursuit of Bragg into Kentucky October 1-15. Battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8. March to Nashville, Tenn., October 16-November 7, and duty there till December 26. Advance on Murfreesboro December 26-30. Battle of Stone's River December 30-31, 1862, and January 1-3, 1863. Duty at Murfreesboro till June. Expedition toward Columbia March 4-14. Middle Tennessee or Tullahoma Campaign June 23-July 7. Hoover's Gap June 24-26. Occupation of Middle Tennessee till August 16. Passage of Cumberland Mountains and Tennessee River and Chickamauga (Ga.) Campaign August 16-September 22. Battle of Chickamauga September 19-21. Siege of Chattanooga, Tenn., September 24-November 23. Near Chattanooga October 8. Reopening Tennessee River October 25-29. Brown's Ferry October 27. Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign November 23-27. Orchard Knob November 23-24. Mission Ridge November 25. Regiment reenlisted January 1, 1864. Veterans on furlough January 22, to March 7, 1864. Reconnoissance to Dalton, Ga., February 22-27, 1864. Tunnel Hill, Buzzard's Roost Gap and Rocky Faced Ridge February 23-25. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign May 1 to September 8. Demonstrations on Rocky Faced Ridge May 8-11. Battle of Resaca May 14-15. Advance on Dallas May 18-25. Operations on line of Pumpkin Vine Creek and battles about Dallas, New Hope Church and Allatoona Hills May 25-June 5. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Pine Mountain June 11-14. Lost Mountain June 15-17. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Ruff's Station, Smyrna Camp Ground, July 4. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Peach Tree Creek July 19-20. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Utoy Creek August 5-7. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Operations against Hood in North Georgia and North Alabama September 29-November 3. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Fayetteville, N. C., March 11. Battle of Bentonville March 19-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D. C, via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 20. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June, and duty there till July. Mustered out July 16, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 6 Officers and 71 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 154 Enlisted men by disease. Total 232.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1504

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Major-General George B. McClellan to Abraham Lincoln, September 13, 1862 – 12 m.

HEADQUARTERS, Frederick, September 13, 1862 12 m.
(Received 2.35 a.m., September 14.)
To the PRESIDENT:

I have the whole rebel force in front of me, but am confident, and no time shall be lost. I have a difficult task to perform, but with God's blessing will accomplish it. I think Lee has made a gross mistake, and that he will be severely punished for it. The army is in motion as rapidly as possible. I hope for a great success if the plans of the rebels remain unchallenged. We have possession of Catoctin. I have all the plans of the rebels, and will catch them in their own trap if my men are equal to the emergency. I now feel that I can count on them as of old. All forces of Pennsylvania should be placed to co-operate at Chambersburg. My respects to Mrs. Lincoln. Received most enthusiastically by the ladies. Will send you trophies. All well, and with God's blessing will accomplish it.

 GEO. B. McCLELLAN.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 281

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Sunday, June 14, 1863

Company E moved back as a reserve and to do police duty. Six of our companies are out on picket. There was heavy cannonading today by our men, the rebels in return throwing a few shells now and then. It is reported that one of our shells exploding in the streets of the town killed six women. Women and children as well as the men are shut in and are of course helping to consume the small store of provisions, but there is no way of escape.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 121

Diary of Gideon Welles, Friday, September 12, 1862

A clever rain last night, which I hope may swell the tributaries of the upper Potomac.

A call from Wilkes, who is disturbed because I press him so earnestly. Told him I wished him off as soon as possible; had hoped he would have left before this; Rebel cruisers are about and immense injury might result from a single day's delay. I find the officers generally dislike to sail with him.

A brief meeting of the Cabinet. Seward was not present. Has met with us but once in several weeks. No cause assigned for this constant absence, yet a reluctance to discuss and bring to a decision any great question without him is apparent.

In a long and free discussion on the condition of the army and military affairs by the President, Blair, Smith, and myself, the President repeated what he had before said to me, that the selection of McClellan to command active operations was not made by him but by Halleck, and remarked that the latter was driven to it by necessity. He had arranged his army corps and designated the generals to lead each column, and called on Burnside to take chief command. But Burnside declined and declared himself unequal to the position. Halleck had no other officer whom he thought capable and said he consequently was left with no alternative but McClellan.

"The officers and soldiers," the President said, “were pleased with the reinstatement of that officer, but I wish you to understand it was not made by me. I put McClellan in command here to defend the city, for he has great powers of organization and discipline; he comprehends and can arrange military combinations better than any of our generals, and there his usefulness ends. He can't go ahead — he can't strike a blow. He got to Rockville, for instance, last Sunday night, and in four days he advanced to Middlebrook, ten miles, in pursuit of an invading enemy. This was rapid movement for him. When he went up the Peninsula there was no reason why he should have been detained a single day at Yorktown, but he waited, and gave the enemy time to gather his forces and strengthen his position."

I suggested that this dilatory, defensive policy was partly at least the result of education; that a defensive policy was the West Point policy. Our Government was not intended to be aggressive but to resist aggression or invasion, — to repel, not to advance. We had good engineers and accomplished officers, but that no efficient, energetic, audacious, fighting commanding general had yet appeared from that institution. We were all aware that General Scott had, at the very commencement, begun with this error of defense, the Anaconda theory; was unwilling to invade the seceding States, said we must shut off the world from the Rebels by blockade and by our defenses. He had always been reluctant to enter Virginia or strike a blow. Blair said this was so, that we had men of narrow, aristocratic notions from West Point, but as yet no generals to command; that there were many clever second-rate men, but no superior mind of the higher class. The difficulty, however, was in the War Department itself. There was bluster but not competency. It should make generals, should search and find them, and bring them up, for there were such somewhere, — far down perhaps. The War Department should give character and tone to the army and all military movements. Such, said he, is the fact with the Navy Department, which makes no bluster, has no blowers, but quietly and intelligently does its work, inspires its officers and men, and brings forward leaders like Farragut, Foote, and Du Pont. The result tells you the value of system, of rightful discrimination, good sense, judgment, knowledge, and study of men. They make ten times the noise at the War Department, but see what they do or fail to do. The Secretary of War should advise with the best and most experienced minds, avail himself of their opinions, not give way to narrow prejudices and strive to weaken his generals, or impair confidence in them on account of personal dislikes. We have officers of capacity, depend upon it, and they should be hunted out and brought forward. The Secretary should dig up these jewels. That is his duty. B. named Sherman and one or two others who showed capacity.

"McClellan," said B., "is not the man, but he is the best among the major-generals." Smith said he should prefer Banks. Blair said Banks was no general, had no capacity for chief command. Was probably an estimable officer in his proper place, under orders. So was Burnside, and Heintzelman, and Sykes, but the War Department must hunt up greater men, better military minds, than these to carry on successful war.

Smith complimented Pope's patriotism and bravery, and the President joined in the encomiums. Said that Halleck declared that Pope had made but one mistake in all the orders he had given, and that was in ordering one column to retreat on Tuesday from Centreville to Chain Bridge, whereby he exposed his flank, but no harm came of his error. Blair was unwilling to concede any credit whatever to Pope; said he was a blower and a liar and ought never to have been intrusted with such a command as that in front. The President admitted Pope's infirmity, but said a liar might be brave and have skill as an officer. He said Pope had great cunning. He had published his report, for instance, which was wrong, — an offense for which, if it can be traced to him, Pope must be made amenable, — “But,” said he, "it can never, by any skill, be traced to him." "That is the man," said Blair. "Old John Pope,1 his father, was a flatterer, a deceiver, a liar, and a trickster; all the Popes are so."

When we left the Executive Mansion, Blair, who came out with me, remarked that he was glad this conversation had taken place. He wanted to let the President know we must have a Secretary of War who can do something besides intrigue, — who can give force and character to the army, administer the Department on correct principles. Cameron, he said, had got into the War Department by the contrivance and cunning of Seward, who used him and other corruptionists as he pleased, with the assistance of Thurlow Weed; that Seward had tried to get Cameron into the Treasury, but was unable to quite accomplish that, and after a hard underground quarrel against Chase, it ended in the loss of Cameron, who went over to Chase and left Seward. Bedeviled with the belief he might be a candidate for the Presidency, Cameron was beguiled and led to mount the nigger hobby, alarmed the President with his notions, and at the right moment, B. says, he plainly and frankly told the President he ought to get rid of C. at once, that he was not fit to remain in the Cabinet, and was incompetent to manage the War Department, which he had undertaken to run by the aid of Tom A. Scott, a corrupt lobby-jobber from Philadelphia. Seward was ready to get rid of Cameron after he went over to Chase, but instead of bringing in an earnest, vigorous, sincere man like old Ben Wade to fill the place, he picked up this black terrier, who is no better than Cameron, though he has a better assistant than Scott, in Watson. Blair says he now wants assistance to "get this black terrier out of his kennel." I probably did not respond as he wished, for I am going into no combination or movement against colleagues. He said he must go and see Seward. In his dislike of Stanton, Blair is sincere and earnest, but in his detestation he may fail to allow Stanton qualities that he really possesses. Stanton is no favorite of mine. He has energy and application, is industrious and driving, but devises nothing, shuns responsibility, and I doubt his sincerity always. He wants no general to overtop him, is jealous of others in any position who have influence and popular regard; but he has cunning and skill, dissembles his feelings, in short, is a hypocrite, a moral coward, while affecting to be, and to a certain extent being, brusque, overvaliant in words. Blair says he is dishonest, that he has taken bribes, and that he is a double-dealer; that he is now deceiving both Seward and Chase; that Seward brought him into the Cabinet after Chase stole Cameron, and that Chase is now stealing Stanton. Reminds me that he exposed Stanton's corrupt character, and stated an instance which had come to his knowledge and where he has proof of a bribe having been received; that he made this exposure when Stanton was a candidate for Attorney for the District. Yet Seward, knowing these facts, had induced and persuaded the President to bring this corrupt man into the War Department. The country was now suffering for this mistaken act. Seward wanted a creature of his own in the War Department, that he might use, but Stanton was actually using Seward.

Stanton's appointment to the War Department was in some respects a strange one. I was never a favorite of Seward, who always wanted personal friends. I was not of his sort, personally or politically. Stanton, knowing his creator, sympathized with him. For several months after his appointment, he exhibited some of his peculiar traits towards me. He is by nature a sensationalist, has from the first been filled with panics and alarms, in which I have not participated; and I have sometimes exhibited little respect or regard for his mercurial flights and sensational disturbances. He saw on more than one occasion that I was cool when he was excited, and he well knew that I neither admired his policy nor indorsed his views. Of course we were courteously civil, but reserved and distant. The opposition in the early days of the Administration were violent against the Navy management, and the class of Republicans who had secretly been opposed to my appointment joined in the clamor. In the progress of events there was a change. The Navy and my course, which had been assailed, — and which assaults he countenanced, — grew in favor, while my mercurial colleague failed to give satisfaction. His deportment changed after the naval success at New Orleans, and we have since moved along harmoniously at least. He is impulsive, not administrative; has quickness, often rashness, when he has nothing to apprehend; is more violent than vigorous, more demonstrative than discriminating, more vain than wise; is rude, arrogant, and domineering towards those in subordinate positions if they will submit to his rudeness, but is a sycophant and dissembler in deportment and language with those whom he fears. He has equal cunning but more force and greater capacity than Cameron; yet the qualities I have mentioned and his uneasy, restless nature make him, though possessed of a considerable ability of a certain sort, an unfit man in many respects for the War Department in times like these. I have sometimes thought McClellan would better discharge the duties of Secretary of War than those of a general in the field, and that a similar impression may have crossed Stanton's mind, and caused or increased his hate of that officer. There is no love lost between them, and their enmity towards each other does not injure McClellan in the estimation of Blair. Should McClellan in this Maryland campaign display vigor and beat the Rebels, he may overthrow Stanton as well as Lee. Blair will give him active assistance. But he must rid himself of what President Lincoln calls the "slows." This, I fear, is impossible; it is his nature.
__________

1 General Pope's father was Judge Nathaniel Pope, of the United States District Court for Illinois.

SOURCE: Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson, Vol. 1: 1861 – March 30, 1864, p. 123-9

Major-General George B. McClellan to Major-General Henry W. Halleck, September 11, 1862

HEADQUARTERS,
Camp near Rockville, Md., September 11, 1862. (Received 6 p.m.)

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
General-in- Chief:

GENERAL: At the time this army moved from Washington, it was not known what the intentions of the rebels were in placing their forces on this side of the Potomac. It might have been a feint to draw away our troops from Washington, for the purpose of throwing their main army into the city as soon as we were out of the way, or it might have been supposed to be precisely what they are now doing. In view of this uncertain condition of things, I left what I conceived to be a sufficient force to defend the city against any army they could bring against it from the Virginia side of the Potomac. This uncertainty, in my judgment, exists no longer. All the evidence that has been accumulated from various sources since we left Washington goes to prove most conclusively that almost the entire rebel army in Virginia, amounting to not less than 120,000 men, is in the vicinity of Frederick City. These troops, for the most part, consist of their oldest regiments, and are commanded by their best generals. Several brigades joined them yesterday, direct from Richmond, two deserters from which say that they saw no other troops between Richmond and Leesburg. Everything seems to indicate that they intend to hazard all upon the issue of the coming battle. They are probably aware that their forces are numerically superior to ours by at least 25 per cent. This, with the prestige of their recent successes, will, without doubt, inspire them with a confidence which will cause them to fight well. The momentous consequences involved in the struggle of the next few days impels me, at the risk of being considered slow and overcautious, to most earnestly recommend that every available man be at once added to this army.

I believe this army fully appreciates the importance of a victory at this time, and will fight well; but the result of a general battle, with such odds as the enemy now appears to have against us, might, to say the least, be doubtful; and if we should be defeated the consequences to the country would be disastrous in the extreme. Under these circumstances, I would recommend that one or two of the three army corps now on the Potomac, opposite Washington, be at once withdrawn and sent to re-enforce this army. I would also advise that the force of Colonel Miles, at Harper's Ferry, where it can be of but little use, and is continually exposed to be cut off by the enemy, be immediately ordered here. This would add about 25,000 old troops to our present force, and would greatly strengthen us.

If there are any rebel forces remaining on the other side of the Potomac, they must be so few that the troops left in the forts, after the two corps shall have been withdrawn, will be sufficient to check them; and, with the large cavalry force now on that side kept well out in front to give warning of the distant approach of any very large army, a part of this army might be sent back within the intrenchments to assist in repelling an attack. But even if Washington should be taken while these armies are confronting each other, this would not, in my judgment, bear comparison with the ruin and disaster which would follow a signal defeat of this army. If we should be successful in conquering the gigantic rebel army before us, we would have no difficulty in recovering it. On the other hand, should their force prove sufficiently powerful to defeat us, would all the forces now around Washington be sufficient to prevent such a victorious army from carrying the works on this side of the Potomac, after they are uncovered by our army? I think not.

From the moment the rebels commenced the policy of concentrating their forces, and with their large masses of troops operating against our scattered forces, they have been successful. They are undoubtedly pursuing the same now, and are prepared to take advantage of any division of our troops in future. I, therefore, most respectfully, but strenuously, urge upon you the absolute necessity, at this critical juncture, of uniting all our disposable forces. Every other consideration should yield to this, and if we defeat the army now arrayed before us, the rebellion is crushed, for I do not believe they can organize another army. But if we should be so unfortunate as to meet with defeat, our country is at their mercy.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
 GEO. B. McCLELLAN,
Major-general.

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 19, Part 2 (Serial No. 28), p. 254-5

16th Ohio Infantry – 3 Months

Organized at Columbus, Ohio, May 3, 1861. Left State for West Virginia May 25. Attached to Gen. Kelly's Command May 28. Occupation of Grafton, W. Va., May 30. West Virginia Campaign June 1-July 17. Action at Phillippi June 3. Bowman's Place June 29. Pursuit of Garnett July 7-12. Ordered to Columbus, Ohio, and mustered out August 18, 1861.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1503

16th Ohio Infantry – 3 Years

Organized at Camp Tiffin, Wooster· Camp Chase and Zanesville, Ohio, September 23-December 2, 1861. Moved to Camp Dennison, Ohio, November 28, thence to Lexington, Ky., December 19. Moved to Somerset, Ky., January 12, 1862. Attached to 12th Brigade, Army Ohio, to March, 1862. 26th Brigade, 7th Division, Army Ohio, to October, 1862. 4th Brigade, Cumberland Gap Division, District of West Virginia, Dept. Ohio, to November, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 9th Division, Right Wing, 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Sherman's Yazoo Expedition, to January, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 9th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to February, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 9th Division, 13th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to September, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Gulf, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 19th Army Corps, to October. 1864.

SERVICE. – March to support of Gen. Thomas at battle of Mill Springs, Ky., January 18-20, 1862. Duty at Somerset till January 31. March to London, thence to Cumberland Ford January 31-February 12, repairing and rebuilding roads. Reconnoissance toward Cumberland Gap March 21-23. Skirmish at Elrod's Ridge March 22. Cumberland Gap Campaign March 28-June 18. Cumberland Mountain April 28. Cumberland Gap April 29. Occupation of Cumberland Gap June 18-September 15. Action at Wilson's Gap June 18. Tazewell July 26 and August 6. Operations about Cumberland Gap September 2-6. Evacuation of Cumberland Gap and retreat to the Ohio River September 17-October 3. Action at West Liberty September 26. Expedition to Charleston, W. Va., October 21-November 10. Ordered to Memphis, Tenn.. November 10. Sherman's Yazoo Expedition December 20, 1862, to January 3, 1863. Chickasaw Bayou December 26-28, 1862. Chickasaw Bluffs December 29. Expedition to Arkansas Post, Ark., January 3-10, 1863. Assault and capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, January 10-11. Moved to Young's Point, La., January 15, thence to Milliken's Bend March 8. Operations from Milliken's Bend to New Carthage March 31-April 17. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Thompson's Hill, Grand Gulf, May 1. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Big Black River May 17. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Advance on Jackson, Miss., July 5-10. Near Clinton July 8. Siege of Jackson July 10-17. Ordered to New Orleans, La., August 13, and duty there till September 6. At Brashear City till October 3. Western Louisiana Campaign October 3-November 18. Moved to DeCrow Point, Matagorda Bay, Texas, November 18-28, and duty there till January, 1864, and at Matagorda Island till April. Moved to New Orleans, La., April 18, thence to Alexandria, La., April 23. Red River Campaign April 26-May 22. Construction of dam at Alexandria April 30-May 10. Graham's Plantation April 5. Retreat to Morganza May 13-20. Mansura May 16. Expedition to the Atchafalaya May 30-June 6. Duty at Morganza till October. Ordered to Columbus, Ohio, October 6. Recruits transferred to 114th Ohio Infantry. Regiment mustered out October 31, 1864, expiration of term.

Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 68 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 217 Enlisted men by disease. Total 286.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1503-4