Thursday, July 24, 2014

Harriett Newby to Dangerfield Newby, April 22, 1859

BRENTVILLE, April 22d, 1859.

I received your letter to-day, and it gives me much pleasure to here from you, but was sorry to _____ of your sikeness; hope you may be well when you receive this. I wrote to you several weeks ago, and directed my letter to Bridge Port, but I fear you did not receive it, as you said nothing about it in yours. You must give my love to Brother Gabial, and tell him I would like to see him very much. I wrote in my last letter that Miss Virginia had a baby — a little girl. I had to nerse her day and night. Dear Dangerfield, you cannot amagine how much I want to see you. Com as soon as you can, for nothing would give more pleasure than to see you. It is the grates Comfort I have is thinking of the promist time when you will be here. Oh, that bless hour when I shall see you once more. My baby commenced to Crall to-day; it is very delicate. Nothing more at present, but remain

Your affectionate wife,
P. S. Write soon.

SOURCE: H. W. Flournoy, Editor, Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Other Manuscripts from January 1 1836 to April 15, 1869, Volume 11, p. 310-1

General Albert Sidney Johnston to the Soldiers of the Army of the Mississippi, April 3, 1862

Corinth, Miss., April 3, 1862.
Soldiers of the Army of the Mississippi:

I have put you in motion to offer battle to the invaders of your country. With the resolution and disciplined valor becoming men fighting, as you are, for all worth living or dying for, you can but march to a decisive victory over agrarian mercenaries, sent to subjugate and despoil you of your liberties, property, and honor. Remember the precious stake involved. Remember the dependence of your mothers, your wives, your sisters, and our children on the result. Remember the fair, broad, abounding land, the happy homes, and ties that will be desolated by your defeat. The eyes and hopes of 8,000,000 of people rest upon you. You are expected to show yourselves worthy of your valor and lineage; worthy of the women of the South, whose noble devotion in this war has never been exceeded in any time. With such incentives to brave deeds and with the trust that God is with us your generals will lead you confidently to the combat, assured of success.

General, Commanding

SOURCE: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 10, Part 1 (Serial No. 1o), p. 396-7; John Witherspoon Du Bose, General Joseph Wheeler and the Army of Tennessee, p. 64

General Joseph Wheeler Memorial: Shiloh National Military Park

In Loyal Memory Of

1836 – 1906

Colonel In Command Of The
19th Regiment, Alabama Infantry
April 6-7, 1862

* * *

Erected By
The General Joseph Wheeler
Memorial Association
October 9, 1930


Major-General William T. Sherman to Major-General George H. Thomas, October 10, 1864 – 12 p.m.

In the Field, Cartersville, October 10, 1864 12 m.
General G. H. THOMAS,

It looks as though Hood is bound for Tuscumbia. He is now crossing the Coosa below Rome, heading west. Let me know if you can hold him with the force now in Tennessee and expected, as in that event you know what I propose to do. I will be at Kingston to-morrow. I think Rome is strong enough to resist any attack, and the rivers are all high. If he turns up by Summerville, I will get in behind him.

Major-General, Commanding.

SOURCES: The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series I, Volume 39, Part 2 (Serial No. 79), p. 191; John Bell Hood, Advance and Retreat, p. 264

John Brown to John Brown Jr., March 12, 1847

Springfield, March 12, 1847.

Dear Son John, — Yours dated Feb. 27th I this day received. It was written about the same time I reached this place again. I am glad to learn that you are relieved in a good measure from another season of suffering. Hope you will make the right improvement of it. I have been here nearly two weeks. Have Captain Spencer, Freeman, the Hudsons, together with Schlessingcr and Ramsden, all helping me again. Have turned about four thousand dollars’ worth of wool into cash since I returned; shall probably make it up to seven thousand by the 16th. Sold Musgrave the James Wallace lot yesterday for fifty-eight cents all round. Hope to get pretty much through by the middle of April. Have paid your account for the “Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist,” together with two dollars for one year's subscription to “National Era,” being in all three dollars. I should have directed to have the “National Era” sent you at Austinburg, but could not certainly know as you would be there to take it. You had better direct to have it sent to you there. I now intend to send Ruth on again soon after my return. Jason writes on the 3d that all are well at home. I feel better than when I left home, and send my health to all in and about Austinburg.

Yours affectionately,
John Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 143

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, July 11, 1861

Camp Chase, July 11, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — I am now almost at home. Lucy is at Platt's with Birch and Webb. Dr. Joe came yesterday bringing Webb with him. We shall have the boys out here a good deal. It is a good place for them. Birch was infinitely disgusted to meet me without my uniform on.

I have my horse here and ride him all about the camp and parade ground. Although young, he is sensible to the last. I shall probably not need Ned, Jr. A horse must canter or lope well to be of any account in a camp. The colonel and Matthews have both been disappointed in theirs. Matthews sent his back home yesterday. My sorrel cost one hundred dollars. He is called the cheapest and one of the best horses in camp. . . .

R. B. Hayes.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 38

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, September 1, 1862

We were engaged with the enemy at and near Manassas Junction Tuesday and Wednesday, and again near the battle-field of Manassas on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday; in all of which God gave us the victory. May He ever be with us, and we ever be His devoted people, is my earnest prayer. It greatly encourages me to feel that so many of God's people are praying for that part of our force under my command. The Lord has answered their prayers; He has again placed us across Bull Run; and I pray that He will make our arms entirely successful, and that all the glory will be given to His holy name, and none of it to man. God has blessed and preserved me through His great mercy. On Saturday, Colonel Baylor and Hugh White were both killed, and Willie Preston was mortally wounded.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 341

Lydia Maria Child to Governor Henry A. Wise, October 26, 1859

Wayland, Mass., Oct. 26, 1859

Governor WISE: I have heard that you were a man of chivalrous sentiments, and I know you were opposed to the iniquitous attempt to force upon Kansas a Constitution abhorrent to the moral sense of her people. Relying upon these indications of honor and justice in your character, I venture to ask a favor of you. Enclosed is a letter to Capt. John Brown. Will you have the kindness, after reading it yourself, to transmit it to the prisoner?

I and all my large circle of abolition acquaintances were taken by surprise when news came of Capt. Brown’s recent attempt; nor do I know of' a single person who would have approved of it, had they been apprised of his intention. But I and thousands of others feel a natural impulse of sympathy for the brave and suffering man. Perhaps God, who sees the inmost of our souls, perceives some such sentiment in your heart also. He needs a mother or sister to dress his wounds, and speak soothingly to him. Will you allow me to perform that mission of humanity? If you will, may God bless you for the generous deed!

I have been for years an uncompromising Abolitionist, and I should scorn to deny it or apologize for it as much as John Brown himself would do. Believing in peace principles, I deeply regret the step that the old veteran has taken, while I honor his humanity towards those who became his prisoners. But because it is my habit to be as open as the daylight, I will also say, that if I believed our religion justified men in fighting for freedom, I should consider the enslaved every where as best entitled to that right. Such an avowal is a simple, frank expression of my sense of natural justice.

But I should despise myself utterly if any circumstances could tempt me to seek to advance these opinions in any way, directly or indirectly, after your permission to visit Virginia has been obtained on the plea of sisterly sympathy with a brave and suffering man. I give you my word of honor, which was never broken, that I would use such permission solely and singly for the purpose of nursing your prisoner, and for no other purpose whatsoever.

Yours, respectfully,

SOURCE: The American Anti-Slavery Society, Correspondence between L. M. Child and Gov. Wise and Mrs. Mason, of Virginia, p. 3-4

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, September 3, 1863

September 3, 1863.

The expedition has been quite successful; the boats were found at Port Royal and were destroyed by our artillery fire from this side. The expedition sent to destroy them consisted of cavalry and artillery, but as they had to go a long distance, over forty miles from the main part of my army, I had to send infantry to support them, and to guard the lower crossing places to prevent the enemy coming over and cutting them off. This has stirred us up a little. We have also had a visit from Brigadier General Meigs, Quartermaster General, who has been inspecting the transportation of this army and who has been pleased to express himself very much gratified with all he has seen. The conscripts continue to come in very slowly, and I fear it will be some time before I am in a condition to move with any prospect of being able to accomplish anything.

I think I told you that one of William Parker's1 sons was on my staff. The other day he paid a visit to his regiment, and on his return must have been captured, as nothing has since been heard of him. I have written Cortlandt2 about it, but I fear the news of his disappearance got into the papers before my letter reached him, as I received a telegram to-day from his father enquiring about it.

I sent up my sword and fixings, but at the request of our express agent, it is to be exhibited for a short time at Gait's jewelry shop, in Washington.

1 First cousin of General Meade.
2 Cortlandt Parker, brother of William Parker.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 146-7

Brigadier General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, September 15, 1863

Headquarters Dept. Of The Tenn.,
Vicksburg, Sept. 15, 1863.

My visit to New Orleans and the forts some one hundred miles further south has been fraught with much interest. I do not remember in all my life to have had so much hilarity and joy crowded into so brief a space of time.

It has literally been a triumphal march. The only alloy being the unfortunate accident to General Grant, who, I am happy to say, is safely at these headquarters, though I fear his accident will confine him to his bed for a good while.

The New Orleans papers have been filled with allusions to us in various terms of compliment. General Banks has been most assiduous in attention.

Of all this I will write you more at length the moment I find leisure. I have been assigned to active duty in the field and to command the Second Brigade, Sixth Division, Army of the Tennessee, reporting for duty to Major-Gen. J. B. McPherson, who, I am happy to say, is my personal friend. Of this matter I will write more anon. Suffice it now to say that the command is a very fine one, an eminently fighting brigade, and one that distinguished itself on my left in the assault on Vicksburg.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 336

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Thursday, September 24, 1863

There is no news of importance. I have entirely recovered and am in good health again. Our regiment, as also the entire brigade, is slowly regaining its strength and increasing in number. The boys from the hospitals are taking their places and those on furlough are returning and bringing new recruits with them.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 144

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: December 1862

Much cold rain and snow-storms. Near our camp was a great neighborhood for pigs. They were allowed to roam about, running through our camp. Colonel warned the people to keep them out. It did no good. Colonel shot one, wounding it. Members of our company captured and dressed it. Company C had fresh pork for dinner. The owner tried to collect pay. The Colonel promised if the pigs were kept out of camp for two weeks he would pay. In less than three days the pigs were in camp again.

The routine for each day. Roll call at 6 A. M. Breakfast at 7. Guard mount, 8.30. Company drill, 9 to 11. Dinner, 12. Battalion drill, 2 to 4. Clean up for dress parade at 5 P. M. Supper at 6. Roll-call, 9. Taps, 9.30. On guard duty every other day and night. Much sympathy in this vicinity for the South. Railroads are kept well guarded.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 11-12

117th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Portsmouth, Ohio, September 15, 1862. Ordered to Kentucky October 2. Camp at Ashland, Ky., till January, 1863. Attached to District of Eastern Kentucky, Dept. of the Ohio. Moved to Paintsville, Ky., January, 1863; thence to Covington via Peach Orchard, Louisia and Catlettsburg, February. Duty at Covington till May. Designation of Regiment changed to 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery May 2, 1863 (which see).

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1546

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Alabama State Monument: Shiloh National Military Park

C. S. A.


[Inscribed on the right side of the monument:]

C. S. A.


4th Battalion, Maj. James M. Clifton.
16th Regiment, Lieut. Col. J. W. Harris.
17th Regt. Lieut. Col. Robert C. Fariss.
18th Regt. Col. Eli S. Shorter.
19th Regt. Col. Joseph Wheeler.
21st Regt. (Lieut. Col. Stewart W. Cayce
(Maj. Frederick Stewart.
22nd Regt. (Col. Zach C. Deas (Wounded)
(Lieut. Col. John C. Marrast
25th Regt. (Col. John Q. Loomis (Wounded)
(Major George D. Johnston
26th Regt. (Col. John G. Coltart (Wounded)
(Lieut. Col. William D. Chadick
31st Regt., Lieut. Col. Montgomery Gilbreath.

[Inscribed on the back of the monument:]

C. S. A.


APRIL 6-7 1862


[Inscribed on the left side of the monument:]

C. S. A.


Brig. Gen. Jones M. Withers, 2nd Div. 2nd Army Corps.
Brig. Gen. Sterling A. M. Wood, 3rd Brig. 3rd Army Corps.


Gen. Bragg’s Escort, Company, Capt. Robert W. Smith.
First Battalion Capt. Thoms F. Jenkins
Miss. And Ala Battalion, Lieut. Col. Richard H. Brewer.
First Regiment, Col. James H. Clanton.


Gage’s Battery, Capt. Charles P. Gage.
Ketchum’s Battery, Capt. Wm. H. Ketchum.
Robertson’s Battery, Capt. Felix H. Robertson

John Brown to Ruth Brown Thompkins, January 5, 1847

Springfield, Mass., Jan 5, 1847.

Dear Daughter Ruth, —Yours dated the 20th and Jason's dated the 16th of December were both received in season, and were very grateful to our feelings, as we are anxious to hear from home often, and had become very uneasy before we got word from Jason. We are middling well, and very much perplexed with our work, accounts, and correspondence. We expect now to go home, if our lives and health are spared, next month, and we feel rejoiced that the time is so near when we hope to meet you all once more. Sometimes my imagination follows those of my family who have passed behind the scenes; and I would almost rejoice to be permitted to make them a personal visit. I have outlived nearly half of all my numerous family, and I ought to realize that in any event a large proportion of my journey is travelled over. You say that you would like very much to have a letter from me, with as much good-advice as I will give. Well, what do you suppose I feel most anxious for in regard to yourself and all at home? Would you believe that I ever had any such care on my mind about them as we read that Job had about his family (not that I would ever think to compare myself with Job)? Would you believe that the long story would be that ye sin not, that you form no foolish attachments, and that you be not a companion of fools?

Your affectionate father,
John Brown

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 142-3

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, July 8, 1861

Camp Chase, July 8, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — Lucy came up to Columbus with Birtie Saturday evening. They have both been out once, and Birch twice to see me in camp. It is very pleasant to see them about. We are jogging on in routine duties. The only variation is the advent of twenty-three Secessionists, held as hostages for Union men seized in Virginia. On the release of the Union men, our prisoners were sent home yesterday.

I fear from the tenor of McLelland’s letters, and what Hale told me, that you are not getting rid of your cough. I hope you will do so soon. It is too bad that you should be unwell now. You would enjoy a little campaigning with me very much, and I would so enjoy having you along.  . . .  — Good-bye.

R. B. Hayes.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 37-8

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, August 25, 1862

The enemy has taken a position, or rather several positions, on the Fauquier side of the Rappahannock. I have only time to tell you how much I love my little pet dove.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 331

Rebecca Buffum Spring to the Family of John Brown, November 30, 1859

Eagleswood, Perth Amboy, N. J., Nov. 30th, '59.
To the family of Mr. John Brown.

Dear Friends:

I would gladly say some words of my own to comfort you, and carry you through this great trial and affliction, but I have them not. May the God of your dear father sustain you as He has him.

I heard also from your mother yesterday. Her note came part way with your father's letter. She is with most lovely and excellent friends, who will do all in their power to sustain her. I like better to have Mrs. Brown with Mrs. Lucretia Mott than in any other place, except in that prison. I should like better to have her there in that now sacred place which is now

“‘In the very verge of heaven.’”

SOURCE: Lillie Buffum Chace Wyman and Arthur Crawford Wyman, Elizabeth Buffum Chace, 1806-1899: Her Life and Its Environment, Volume 1, p. 352

Brigadier General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, September 7, 1863

New Orleans, Sept. 7, 1863.

I open my letter to enclose a couple of cartes, one of General Grant, the other you will probably recognize. I will send the cartes of the residue of the staff to-morrow. They were all taken hurriedly, the weather intensely hot and the time noon, when we were all pretty tired, having had no sleep for two or three nights.  . . . Some day, when I 'm in a better humor, and get all my toggery together, I 'll have one taken in full uniform for you. The Adjutant-General of the United States lent me his coat to be taken in, and his figure being smaller than mine, makes me look pinched in the breast; it was as much as I could do to button it over.

General Grant is much improved this morning, and I think will be out soon again. Meanwhile, we are all very quiet and comfortably provided for. My diet being soft shell crabs and pompinot and nice fish that is brought me from the Gulf. General Banks calls, and all the other generals, and we are at no loss for society.

P. S. — There is a group of the General and his staff finishing while I write. Send in a few days.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 335-6

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, August 31, 1863

August 31, 1863.

I send you to-day some scraps from the newspapers. The first is an extract from the London correspondent of the Presbyterian, which Ben. Gerhard1 sent to me, and which I consider very flattering; for if there is any reputation I aspire to, it is that of a gentleman. The next is the account of the grand presentation from Forney's Chronicle, which is the best and most accurate account I have seen.2 The speech is accurately reported, with one exception, and that is where I am made to say, “I hoped the people of Pennsylvania would re-elect Governor Curtin.” I said nothing of the kind, and made no allusions to elections. Just before I went on the stand, _____ came to me and said: “If you can say anything in favor of Curtin, it will help us greatly.” I replied: “I don't know, Mr. _____, what you mean by helping you. You know I have nothing to do with politics; but it was my intention before you spoke to me to allude to Governor Curtin and his services in behalf of the volunteers from Pennsylvania.” “Well,” said he, “that is all we want.” I did say all that I am reported to have said, except the allusion to his re-election, which was put in by _____. This was bad enough; but in to-day's paper _____ comes out in an editorial (which I send you), puffing Curtin and quoting my speech in italics.

The more I examine my sword the more I am delighted with its beauty. It is really most chaste and artistic. It seems a pity, though, to waste so much money on an article that from its great value is actually rendered useless.

We are having a little excitement to-day, in an expedition that has been sent down the river, to attempt to destroy two gunboats which the enemy recently surprised and captured at the mouth of the Rappahannock. The expedition was ordered from Washington, and I hope it will prove successful.

The conscripts are coming in now pretty fast. To-day for the first time over a thousand arrived. They are generally pretty good men, and I trust the example made of the five deserters, who were shot on Saturday, will check the evil of desertion. This execution was witnessed by a very large number of soldiers, and I am told the only remark made was, “Why did they not begin this practice long ago?” Not a murmur against the justice or the propriety of the act was heard. Indeed, the men are the most anxious to see this great evil cured, as they know their own security will be advanced thereby.

1 Benjamin Gerhard, brother-in-law of Mrs. Meade.

2 The article mentioned is an editorial, and only extracts of the speech are given. The speech was reported in full in the New York Tribune, August 31, 1863. See Appendix E.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 145-6

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Wednesday, September 23, 1863

The weather is quite cool and the boys are beginning to fix up for winter by siding up the tents and building chimneys. There is some prospect of our brigade having to remain here for the winter. The Second Brigade of our division is still at Natchez. We are raising our tents and bunks about twenty-four inches from the ground. The openings around the tents we close up with boards torn from buildings, and having the wedge tent which accommodates four, we build our bunks for two men, one on either side, with the fireplace and chimney in the rear between the bunks. This makes a pretty good house for winter quarters.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 144

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: November 1862

The most important event was our first Thanksgiving in camp. Passed very pleasantly. A good dinner, with games of foot and base-ball. The day closing with dress parade. Many visitors from Baltimore and some from Connecticut. The weather during November was very fine for camp life. Barracks were built for winter quarters to take the place of tents.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 11

116th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Marietta and Gallipolis, Ohio, and mustered in September 18, 1862 (Cos. "F" and "K" mustered in October 28, 1861, and joined Regiment at Buckhannon, W. Va.). Left State for Parkersburg, W. Va., October 16; thence moved to Clarksburg and Buckhannon. Moved to New Creek November 9, and to Moorefield December 12. Attached to Railroad Division, West Virginia, to January, 1863. Romney, W. Va., Defenses of the Upper Potomac, 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to March, 1863. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 8th Army Corps, Middle Department, to June, 1863. 1st Brigade, Elliott's Command, 8th Army Corps, to July, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Dept. of the Susquehanna, July, 1863. McReynolds' Command, Martinsburg, W. Va., Dept. of West Virginia, to December, 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, West Virginia, to April, 1864. 1st Brigade. 1st Infantry Division, West Virginia, to December, 1864. 1st Brigade, Independent Division, 24th Army Corps, Army of the James, to June, 1865.

SERVICE. – Duty at Moorefield, W. Va., December 15, 1862, to January 10, 1863. Moorefield January 3. At Romney till March 17. Near Romney February 16. At Winchester, Va., till June. Operations in Shenandoah Valley April 20-29. Scout toward Wardensville and Strasburg April 20. Scout to Strasburg April 25-29. Bunker Hill June 13 (Cos. "A" and "I"). Battle of Winchester June 13-15. Retreat to Harper's Ferry, W. Va., June 15-16; thence to Washington, D.C., July 1-4, and Join Army of the Potomac at Frederick, Md., July 5. Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va., July 5-24. Wapping Heights, Va., July 23. At Martinsburg, W. Va., August 4, 1863, to April 29, 1864. Skirmish at Hedgesville October 16, 1863 (Detachment). Sigel's Expedition from Martinsburg to New Market April 29-May 16, 1864. Battle of New Market May 15. Advance on Staunton May 24-June 6. Piedmont June 5. Occupation of Staunton June 6. Hunter's raid on Lynchburg June 10-July 1. Lynchburg June 17-18. Ordered to the Shenandoah Valley July. Battle of Kernstown-Winchester, July 24. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28. Charlestown August 21, 22 and 29. Berryville September 3, Battle of Winchester, Opaquan Creek September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Cedar Creek October 13, Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty at Opequan Crossing November 18 to December 19. Moved to Washington, D.C., December 19; thence to Aiken's Landing, Va, Siege of Petersburg and Richmond December 27, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9, Hatcher's Run March 29-April 1. Fall of Petersburg April 2. Pursuit of Lee April 3-9. Rice's Station April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. Duty at Richmond, Va., till June. Mustered out June 14, 1865. Companies "F" and "K" consolidated with 62nd Ohio Infantry.

Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 90 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 3 Officers and 88 Enlisted men by disease. Total 185.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1546

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Diary of Thomas Ebenezer Thomas: Friday, Dec. 2, 1859

Ossawatomie Brown (John), hanged to-day in Virginia, as a traitor, for his mad inroad at Harper's Ferry. A stern Cromwellian fanatic; but probably a much better man than those who execute him. The Lord reigneth: let the earth rejoice"!

SOURCE: Alfred A. Thomas, Editor, Correspondence of Thomas Ebenezer Thomas, p. 109

John Brown to Mary Ann Day Brown, September 29, 1846

Springfield, Sept. 29, 1846.

Dear Mary, —  . . . Your letter dated the 20th was received last night, and afforded me a real though a mournful satisfaction. That you had received, or were to receive, a letter from either John or Jason I was in perfect ignorance of till you informed me; and I am glad to learn that, wholly uninfluenced by me, they have shown a disposition to afford you the comfort in your deep affliction which the nature of the case would admit of. Nothing is scarcely equal with me to the satisfaction of seeing that one portion of my remaining family are not disposed to exclude from their sympathies and their warm affections another portion. I accept it as one of the most grateful returns that can be made to me for any care or exertion on my part to promote either their present or their future well-being; and while I am able to discover such a feeling, I feel assured that notwithstanding God has chastised us often and sore, yet he has not entirely withdrawn himself from us nor forsaken us utterly. The sudden and dreadful manner in which he has seen fit to call our dear little Kitty to take her leave of us is, I need not tell you how much, in my mind; but before Him I will bow my head in submission and hold my peace.  . . . I have sailed over a somewhat stormy sea for nearly half a century, and have experienced enough to teach me thoroughly that I may most reasonably buckle up and be prepared for the tempest. Mary, let us try to maintain a cheerful self-command while we are tossing up and down; and let our motto still be Action, Action, — as we have but one life to live.

Affectionately yours,
John Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 142

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Lucy Webb Hayes, July 6, 1861

Camp Chase, July 6, 1861.

Dearest: — I have written to John Herron to supply you with what money you need for the present, and I suppose it will be convenient for him to do so out of a loan I made him some time ago. It does not seem like Saturday. The Fourth was like Sunday here. Colonel Matthews and I formed the regiment into a hollow square (rather oblong, in fact). I read the Declaration and he made a short pithy speech and wound up with cheers for the Union; and no more duty during the day. In the evening there were fire-balls and a few fireworks. A little shower this morning laid the dust, a fine thing in our little Sahara.

Colonel Matthews came in last night from Columbus, saying he rode out with the surgeon of the Twenty-sixth — the one intended for us — “and what an escape we have made. He is a green, ignorant young doctor who has all to learn.” I suppose Dr. Joe is getting ready to come; we hear nothing from him; I hope we shall see him soon. I am seeing to his hut which is building today. Uncle is rather better but not decidedly so. We have a lot of Secessionists from Virginia — a good camp sensation. I went in late last night after ball-cartridges, which stirred up the soldiers with its warlike look. I esteem these armed sentinels about as dangerous to friends as to foes. Here is our style of countersign. Done up Know-nothing fashion. Love to all and much for your own dear self.

R. B. Hayes.
Mrs. Hayes.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 37

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to General Robert E. Lee, August 11, 1862 – 6:30 a.m.

August 11th, 6.30 A. M.

On the evening of the 9th, God blessed our arms with another victory. The battle was near Cedar Run, about six miles from Culpepper Court-House. The enemy, according to statements of prisoners, consisted of Banks's, McDowell's, and Sigel's commands. We have over four hundred prisoners, including Brigadier-General Price. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy, we have to mourn the loss of some of our best officers and men. Brigadier-General Charles S. Winder was mortally wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at the head of his command, which was the advance of the left wing of the army. We have collected about fifteen hundred small-arms and other ordnance stores.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 327

Elizabeth Cady Stanton to Susan B. Anthony, December 23, 1859

Seneca Falls, December 23, 1859.

Dear Susan, — Where are you? Since a week ago last Monday, I have looked for you every day. I had the washing put off, we cooked a turkey, I made a pie in the morning, sent my first-born to the depot and put clean aprons on the children, but lo! you did not come. Nor did you soften the rough angles of our disappointment by one solitary line of excuse. And it would do me such great good to see some reformers just now. The death of my father,1 the worse than death of my dear Cousin Gerrit,2 the martyrdom of that grand and glorious John Brown — all this conspires to make me regret more than ever my dwarfed womanhood. In times like these, everyone should do the work of a full-grown man. When I pass the gate of the celestial city and good Peter asks me where I would sit, I shall say, “Anywhere, so that I am neither a negro nor a woman. Confer on me, good angel, the glory of white manhood so that henceforth, sitting or standing, rising up or lying down, I may enjoy the most unlimited freedom.” Good night.

1 Judge Cady became suddenly blind in April, 1859, and died on October 31st.

2 In October John Brown made his famous raid on Harper's Ferry. On November 2 he was found guilty and condemned to be hung. This tragedy unsettled for a time the mind of his friend and supporter Gerrit Smith.

SOURCE: Theodore Stanton & Hariot Stanton Blatch, Editors, Elizabeth Cady Stanton as Revealed in Her Letters, Diary and Reminiscences, Volume 2, p. 74-5

Brigadier General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, September 6, 1863

New Orleans, Sept. 6, 1863.

My last was dated from Natchez, advising you of my intent to come here. Yours of 21st was received at this point day before yesterday. Our trip down the river was safe and pleasant, and we were fortunate in not being fired upon by the guerillas. The steamboat Julia, which preceded us, was fired upon and three men wounded. Our reception in New Orleans was very brilliant — serenades, calls, a magnificent evening reception or levee by General Banks, and yesterday a grand review. The parade grounds are some eight miles from the city. We rode out on horseback, and I am sorry to say our festivities were or are interrupted by a rather serious accident. The two generals and their staff made a large cavalcade. General Grant was riding a fine but unbroken horse and on our return the animal shied upon a carriage and fell; he was in advance and at rapid speed; the officer following was out of place, and rode over him and the trampling of the horse bruised him severely. We took him in a state of insensibility into a roadside inn before which the accident occurred, and where he now lies in the room in which I write. His thigh is badly injured and he cannot move his leg, but he is better this morning and I think can be moved in a day or two; with the residue of his staff, I remain to take care of him.

The weather here has been sultry until to-day; a fine breeze is stirring and I think we shall soon have rain. It was intensely hot during the review, which was tedious, there being some fifteen thousand troops to be reviewed at once. My clothes were dripping wet with perspiration, as if I had been in a rainstorm, — but then I had motion, gladsome motion, and “motion to an endless end is needful for man's heart.”

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 334-5

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, August 27, 1863

August 27, 1863.

To-morrow is the grand presentation day. I have not made the slightest preparation in the way of a speech, and have not the slightest idea what I shall say. Governor Curtin, I understand, is to make the presentation address; so, of course, I shall be overwhelmed with his eloquence and perhaps dumfounded. On reflection, I thought it absurd for me to make any labored effort; that it being entirely out of my line, I should most likely do worse than if I just trusted to luck and said what at the time seemed to me pertinent and suitable.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 145

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Tuesday, September 22, 1863

Everything is very quiet. We learned that Alexander Ragan of Company E died at Benton Barracks, St. Louis, on the 9th of this month. His is the first death in our company since August 3, 1862, when Ebenezer McCullough died at Corinth, Mississippi, on that date.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 144

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: October 30, 1862

Camp fires were kept burning very late last night. The boys are singing, dancing, making speeches, and having a very merry old time. All seem happy. This morning the regiment formed in line for our march out of the old fort. When outside of the walls cheering began as the happy boys went marching on.

The regiment made a fine appearance as they marched through Baltimore. Every man seemed to be trying to do his best. Stopping for a rest in one of the streets, a grocer treated us to apples. Citizens cheered us as we marched along. Passed through Baltimore on out to the east side, going into camp near Fort Marshall on Snake Hill. Camp being established it was named Emory in honor of the General. Seven companies sent out for guard duty along the Baltimore & Philadelphia Railroad. Bridges had been set on fire at times. There was much sympathy for the South in Maryland. Companies A, B, and C remained in camp. Regimental headquarters a pleasant location for a camp. Guard duty, drilling, dress parade, with an occasional tramp through the country on skirmish drill was about the daily routine of duty, weather permitting. One of the very pleasant things about camp life was the writing and receiving of letters.

Our duty at Camp Emory was not very laborious. Allowed to visit the city quite often on passes. After Sunday morning inspection no more duty required of us until dress parade. Guard duty must be done all the time.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 10-11

115th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Camp Massillon, Ohio, and mustered in September 18, 1862. Moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, September 27. Assigned to duty by detachments as Provost Guard and guarding Forts, Arsenals, Store Houses and Magazines at Camps Chase, Dennison, Ohio, Maysville, Covington and Newport, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio, till October, 1863. Ordered to Chattanooga, Tenn., October 23, 1863; thence to Murfreesboro, Tenn. Attached to Post of Murfreesboro, Tenn., Dept. of the Cumberland, to January, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 12th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to April, 1864. Unassigned, 4th Division, 20th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to July, 1864. 1st Brigade, Defences of Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, Dept. of the Cumberland, to March, 1865. 1st Brigade, 1st Sub-District, District of Middle Tennessee, Dept. of the Cumberland, to June, 1865.

SERVICE. – Duty at Murfreesboro, Tenn., and along line of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, in Block Houses and at Bridges till June, 1865. Regiment was specially selected for this arduous duty because of the great number of skilled mechanics and artisans in its ranks. Skirmishes at Cripple Creek, Woodbury Pike, May 25, 1864 (Detachment). Smyrna August 31, 1864. Block House No. 4 August 31, 1864. Company "B" captured by Wheeler. Block House No. 5 (Co. "B"). Block House No. 2, on Mill Creek, Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, December 2-3. Block House No. 1 December 3 (Detachment). Block House No. 3 December 3 (Detachment). Block House No. 4 December 4 (Detachment). Block House No. 7 December 4 (Detachment). Siege of Murfreesboro December 5-12. "The Cedars" December 5-7. Lavergne December 8. Duty along Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad from Nashville to Tullahoma, Tenn., till June, 1865. Mustered out June 23, 1865.

Regiment lost during Service 1 Officer and 8 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 138 Enlisted men by disease. Total 151.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1545-6

Monday, July 21, 2014

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Monday, September 21, 1863

Three companies were sent out on picket today. I was on camp guard today. It is reported that the battle south of Chattanooga is still in progress, and also that our gunboats are throwing shells into Charleston, South Carolina. We hear that there was a riot in Mobile, when six hundred women and children demanded bread of the city.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 143-4

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: October 29, 1862

Marching orders received. Our last day and night at Fort McHenry. Great rejoicing over the prospect of leaving the old place. Packing up and getting ready for an early start on the morrow. Singing and very happy in camp.

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 10

114th Ohio Infantry

Organized at Camp Circleville, Ohio, and mustered in September 11, 1862. Ordered to Marietta, Ohio, September 12; thence to Memphis, Tenn., December 1. Attached to 2nd Brigade, 9th Division, Right Wing 13th Army Corps (Old), Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Sherman's Yazoo Expedition, to January, 1863. 2nd Brigade, 9th Division, 13th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1863. 4th Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee, to August, 1863, and Dept. of the Gulf to September, 1863. 3rd Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Gulf, to March, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 13th Army Corps, to June, 1864. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 19th Army Corps, Dept. of the Gulf, to December, 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, Reserve Corps, Military Division West Mississippi, to February, 1865. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 13th Army Corps (New), Military Division West Mississippi, to July, 1865.

SERVICE. – Sherman's Yazoo Expedition December 20, 1862, to January 3, 1863. Chickasaw Bayou December 26-28, 1862. Chickasaw Bluff December 29. Expedition to Arkansas Post, Ark., January 3-10, 1863. Assault and capture of Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, January 10-11. Moved to Young's Point, La., January 17-23, and duty there till March 8. Moved to Milliken's Bend, La., and duty there till April. Operations from Milliken's Bend to New Carthage March 31-April 17. Expedition from Perkins' Plantation to Hard Times Landing April 25-29. Phelps' and Clark's Bayous April 26. Choctaw Bayou, or Lake Bruin, April 28. Battle of Port Gibson May 1. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Big Black River May 17. Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 18-July 4. Assaults on Vicksburg May 19 and 22. Duty at Warrenton May 25 to July 14, and at Vicksburg till August 13. Ordered to New Orleans, La., August 13, and duty there till September 8. At Brashear City till October 3. Western Louisiana Campaign October 3-November 18. Moved to DeCrow's Point, Matagorda Bay, Texas, November 18-28, and duty there till January 14, 1864. At Matagorda Island till April 18. Moved to Alexandria, La., April 18-26. Red River Campaign April 26-May 22. Graham's Plantation May 5. Retreat to Morganza May 13-20. Mansura, or Marksville Prairie, May 16. Expedition to Atchafalaya May 30-June 6. Duty at Morganza till November 21. Moved to mouth of White River, Ark., November 21-26. Return to Morganza December 6. Expedition to Morgan's Ferry, Atchafalaya River, December 13-14. Moved to Kenner, La., January 8, 1865; thence to Barrancas, Fla., January 24. Campaign against Mobile, Ala., and its Defences, March 20-April 12. March from Pensacola, Fla., to Blakely, Ala., March 20-April 2. Occupation of Canoe Station March 27. Siege of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakely April 2-8. Assault and capture of Fort Blakely April 9. Occupation of Mobile April 12. March to Montgomery and Selma April 13-25. Duty at Selma till May 12, and at Mobile till June 13. Moved to Galveston, Texas, June 13, and duty there till July. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 48th Ohio Veteran Battalion July 24. Mustered out July 31, 1865.

Regiment lost during service 3 Officers and 36 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 2 Officers and 270 Enlisted men by disease. Total 311.

SOURCE: Frederick H. Dyer, A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Part 3, p. 1545

Sunday, July 20, 2014

John Brown to John Jr. & Ruth Brown, June 6, 1846

Akron, Ohio, June 6, 1846.

Dear Son And Daughter, — I wrote you some time since, enclosing five dollars; but neither of you have let me know whether you received it or not, nor how much you were in immediate want of. Two lines would have told me all, and that you were or were not well. I now enclose you ten dollars; and I want to hear from you without one moment's delay, or I cannot till I get to New England (possibly). Say to me how much you must have for your bills at Austinburg and expenses back to this place. I can calculate for John's expenses to Springfield from here, and will provide for that. I have some nice cloth for an entire suit, which I think I had better take for you (John) to Springfield, so that you can have it made up there if you have any want of clothes before winter. We have plenty of it on hand, and it will save paying out the money. We are getting a good pair of calfskin boots made for you. We intend to take on a good supply of nice well-made shirts, in order to save your paying there for such things more than is indispensable, and also to prevent your being delayed after you come back here with Ruth. It is barely possible that Jason and I may come by way of Austinburg. We expect to start in a little more than a week from this. If I do not come by your place on my way, you may look for another letter before I start for the East. It may be that some of your bills can lie unpaid till I can sell some of our wool, and let you draw on Perkins & Brown at Springfield for the amount, instead of making a remittance by mail. Some of your merchants or other business men might be glad to get a small draft of that kind, payable at sight. Let me know all about matters. All are well here.

Affectionately yours,
John Brown.

SOURCE: Franklin B. Sanborn, The Life and Letters of John Brown, p. 141

Major Rutherford B. Hayes to Sardis Birchard, July 5, 1861

Camp Chase, July 5, 1861.

Dear Uncle: — I have so little to write that I have, perhaps, neglected you. We are getting on very pleasantly here. It is a gentlemanly, social life, with just business and exercise enough to pass the time.

I have probably engaged a horse for one hundred dollars — a dark sorrel, good stock, neat, graceful, and of good temper.

Dr. Joe has been appointed our surgeon. We have not heard from home since he received the appointment, but I expect him to accept it. It will please Lucy and mother particularly. Let me hear of or from you often.

R. B. Hayes.
S. Birchard.

SOURCE: Charles Richard Williams, editor, Diary and Letters of Rutherford Birchard Hayes, Volume 2, p. 36-7

Major-General Thomas J. Jackson to Mary Anna Morrison Jackson, August 11, 1862

On last Saturday our God again crowned our arms with victory, about six miles from Culpepper Court-House. I can hardly think of the fall of Brigadier-General C. S. Winder without tearful eyes. Let us all unite more earnestly in imploring God's aid in fighting our battles for us. The thought that there are so many of God's people praying for His blessing upon the army greatly strengthens and encourages me. The Lord has answered their prayers, and my trust is in Him, that He will continue to do so. If God be for us, who can be against us? That He will still be with us and give us victory until our independence shall be established, and that He will make our nation that people whose God is the Lord, is my earnest and oft-repeated prayer. While we attach so much importance to being free from temporal bondage, we must attach far more to being free from the bondage of sin.

SOURCE: Mary Anna Jackson, Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson), p. 326

Review: The Civil War, The Final Year Told by Those Who Lived It

Edited by Aaron Sheehan-Dean

Too often the study of the American Civil War is approached as if looking at a review mirror, looking back at events passed and knowing their outcome.  Such a view of an historical event diminishes the experience of those who lived through it.  For instance, we know that Abraham Lincoln handily won the 1864 Presidential Election and defeated Major-General George B. McClellan, but Lincoln was so uncertain of its outcome that on August 23, 1864 wrote a memo to his cabinet, agreeing that they will “co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration, as he will have secured his election on such ground that he can not possibly save it afterwards,” and had them sign it without showing them its contents.

Though one can never remove the historical knowledge of the outcome of the war, reading the documents, letters and diaries of the people who lived through the Civil War gives one a sense of immediacy of the events depicted and their yet unknown resolutions that you just don’t get in most history text books.

The Library of America, in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War has produced a four volume set of books covering the entire span of the war, each one covering one year of the war, and using only the primary source material that other authors often use to write their books. “The Civil War: The Final Year Told By Those Who Lived It,” is the fourth and final volume in the series.

Beginning with the Southern diarist Catherine Edmonston’s entry for March 8, 1864 and ending with Union Major-General Gordon Granger’s General Orders No. 3 of June 19, 1865 announcing to the people of Texas that all slaves are now free, this volume covers the breadth, width and depth of the wars final and tumultuous year.

Notable inclusions in this hefty 1024 page tome include a May 11, 1864, letter from Ulysses S. Grant to Edwin M. Stanton and Henry W. Halleck, proposing that he will “fight it out on this line if it takes all summer;” Abraham Lincoln’s memorandum to his cabinet mentioned above; William T. Sherman’s September 12, 1864 letter to Atlanta’s mayor, James M. Calhoun and others, in which he states, “war is cruelty;” Sherman’s October 9, 1864 message to Grant promising to “make Georgia howl;” the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution forever abolishing slavery; Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address;  Grant’s terms for the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia;  and Robert E. Lee’s General Orders No. 9, his farewell message, are all among the many documents in this book which are too numerous to mention.

Aaron Sheehan-Dean has done a wonderful job of collecting and editing this selection of documents.  Each item is prefaced by a brief explanatory paragraph and then the document, in its entirety, follows.  Included at the end of this volume is a narrative chronology, biographical notes, notes on the texts, end notes, and lastly an index.

“The Civil War: The Final Year Told by Those Who Lived It” along with its previous three sister volumes, is an excellent resource for Civil War scholars or novices alike.

ISBN 978-1598532944, Library of America, © 2014, Hardcover, 1024 pages, Maps, Chronology, Biographical Notes, Note on the Texts, Notes & Index. $40.00.  To purchase this book click HERE.

Brigadier-General John A. Rawlins to Mary Emeline Hurlburt Rawlins, January 16, 1864

Nashville, Jan. 16, 1864.

I arrived here last night1 and found all well and delighted to see me.  . . . I myself am still troubled with my cold. I mention this not to cause you uneasiness . . . but simply because I promised you I would write you the exact state of my health, whether good or bad, and this I shall always do. This morning was delightful, just cold enough to be bracing to those who sought the street for a stroll either for pleasure or business. Don't understand me to say there were any pleasure promenaders, for, dearest, if there ever was a city over which the shadow of gloom hung darkly it is this. It is literally the City of Woe. Nineteen out of twenty of the inhabitants are in mourning for friends who have been killed in battle.  . . . The very buildings seem to lift their darkened and dingy walls in consciousness of the gloom above them. . . .

I have just written a letter to General Ransom, one of my warmest and most intimate friends, and send you an extract from it. “While North, at Danbury, Connecticut, on the 23rd ultimo, I married Miss Mary E. Hurlbut, whom I met first at our headquarters in Vicksburg, where she had been during the siege, having gone South with friends previous to the outbreak of the rebellion.  . . . She was for the Union after my acquaintance with her and will instruct and educate my children in the spirit and sentiment of patriotism which I hope will always actuate them.” . . .

The following extract from a letter written by Mr. C. A. Dana, the Assistant Secretary of War, to General Wilson I send you, knowing how pleased you are at everything said pleasantly of me. Don't, however, indulge in Mr. Dana's forebodings as to my health. “Mrs. Rawlins I had no opportunity of seeing, but I hope she will add nothing but happiness to the life of her most excellent husband. His appearance made me somewhat anxious about him. I feared that his lungs might be more seriously affected than I had supposed. His loss would be a great misfortune, not only for his friends, but still more for the country. Public servants of his quality will always be few. There are plenty of men whose names will flourish largely in history without having rendered a tithe of his unostentatious and invaluable contributions to the great work of the nation.”

1 From the leave of absence which he took to be married.

SOURCE: James H. Wilson, The Life of John A. Rawlins, p. 384-5

Brigadier General Thomas Kilby Smith to Elizabeth Budd Smith, September 1, 1863

Headquarters Dept. Of The Tennessee,
Vicksburg, Sept. 1, 1863.
My Dear Wife:

I am about to accompany General Grant to New Orleans; shall start this evening and be gone some eight or ten days, so that if you do not hear from me as regularly as usual you must not be anxious.

SOURCE: Walter George Smith, Life and letters of Thomas Kilby Smith, p. 334

Major-General George G. Meade to Margaretta Sergeant Mead, August 23, 1863

August 23, 1863.

It must be very strange, traveling to Cape May in a railroad car, though I have no doubt, after you get there, everything, as you say, looks like old times. I wish dearly I could be with you, to enjoy the breeze and the luxurious bathing in the surf, to say nothing of the great fun of building forts in the sand with dear Willie, Sarah and Henrietta.1 But such happiness is denied me, and all I can do is to hope you will enjoy yourselves and benefit by the trip.

To-day is Sunday. I attended service this afternoon, held by the chaplain of the regiment attached to my headquarters. It was a mongrel sort of service, being made up from our service and the Presbyterian. He made a short and pertinent discourse. We never have had the right kind of men for chaplains in the army. They mostly come apparently only for the pay, and either do nothing, or else make themselves obnoxious by interfering in matters they have no business with.

1 Children of General Meade.

SOURCE: George Meade, The Life and Letters of George Gordon Meade, Vol. 2, p. 144-5

Diary of Alexander G. Downing: Sunday, September 20, 1863

We had dress parade this evening at 5 o'clock and important orders were read to the command. The first is, that our division is now to be known as the First Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps; second, that on a march we are to carry only nineteen pounds, and third, that we are to be ready to form a line of battle at a moment's notice. The reason for the last is that the rebels have driven in our pickets on the right and may make a raid. News came that a battle is being fought on the Chickamauga river, to the south of Chattanooga, with heavy loss on both sides.

Source: Alexander G. Downing, Edited by Olynthus B., Clark, Downing’s Civil War Diary, p. 143

Jackson and Calhoun --- A Striking Picture

A scene at the White House in 1833, at the lodging of John C. Calhoun the same night, and death-bead scene at the Hermitage, were this graphically portrayed by Senator Cowan, of Pennsylvania, in the debate on the Confiscation Bill.  It is a very striking picture:–

MR. PRESIDENT:– If Calhoun had been executed for his treason in 1833, there would have been no rebellion now; and perhaps he came nearer his execution than most people are aware.  You will know the conspirators in South Carolina proceeded to the commission of the overt act.

Calhoun was the chief adviser.  General Jackson knew it well, and determined that the law should be put in execution against him; not against the poor misguided men that followed, but against the chief conspirator.  He had resolved on his prosecution and trial, and if convicted, his execution for treason.  He said that if he had an Attorney General that would not draw an indictment, he would find one that would.  Things were approaching the crisis.  Calhoun became aware of Jackson’s determination, and sent Letcher of Kentucky to confer with him on the subject, and to learn his real intentions.  He went to the President’s house.  It was already late at night.  The President received him with his usual courtesy; but, sir, that mild blue eye, which at times would fill with tears and overflow like that of a woman, was kindled up that night with unwonted fire.    He reasoned with him for a while, then paced the floor.  His indignation became fully aroused.  At times he stormed in passion towering and sublime, till rising in passion to is full height, his frame dilating and quivering, every feature flowing with the living fire within, with that oath which in him never seemed profane, but the struggle of a great soul to take hold of the Almighty for the strength of his purpose, he declared to Letcher that if another step was taken, by the Eternal, he would try Calhoun for treason, and if convicted, he would hang him on a gallows as high as Haman’s.

Letcher could not misunderstand his purpose.  He saw that he was terrible in earnest.  From that interview he hastened to the lodgings of Calhoun.  He had retired to his bed.

He knocked at his bed chamber and was admitted.  Calhoun received him sitting up in bed, with his cloak around him – Letcher detailed all that occurred, giving the entire conversation between him and Jackson and described the old hero as he took that oath.

There sat Calhoun, drinking in eagerly every word, and as Letcher proceeded, he became pale as death, and trembled like an aspen leaf.  Yes, sir, Calhoun, great as he was in intellect, quaked in his bed!  And for what?  Was it from fear or cowardice?  Ah, no.  It was the consciousness of guilt.  He was the arch traitor, who, like Satan in Paradise, brought death into the world and all our woe.  Within one week he came into the Senate, and voted for every section of Mr. Clay’s bill and Gen. Jackson was prevailed upon not to prosecute him for his crime.

I have been told, upon authority upon which I rely, that during the last days of Gen. Jackson at the Hermitage he was slowly sinking under the ravages of consumption – that mysterious disease, which while it wastes the body, leaves, if possible, the mind more clear, and nearer to inspiration – he had a conversation with his family physician and friend.

While lying upon his bed one day, and speaking of his past Administration, he inquired:

What act in my Administration, in your opinion, will posterity condemn with the greatest severity?

The Physician replied that he was unable to answer – that it might be the removal of the deposits.

Oh, no! said the General.

Then it may be the specie Circular?

Not at all!

What is it, then?

I can tell you, said he, rising up in his bed, his eyes kindaling up:  I can tell you.  Posterity will condemn me more because I was persuaded not to hang John C. Calhoun as a traitor than for any other act of my life.

Sir, does not this seen inspiration now?  If Calhoun, the originator of the conspiracy to dissolve the Union, and to build up the Southern Confederacy, had been executed for his reason, we would have had now rebellion now.

The greater part of the whole country which formerly produced the sea island cotton is now thoroughly restored to the Union.  The laborers are there – the soil and climate.  It needs only assurance of protection to revive the cultivation of the staple, as well as to produce vast quantities of corn and forage for our troops.  Since this war must be conducted by marches and battles and sieges, why neglect the best means to make them successful and their results permanent?  It is worthy of notice that thus far the portions of territory which once recovered we have most firmly held, are precisely those in which the greatest proportion of colored men are found.  By their assistance, our armies will be able permanently to operate in and occupy the country; and in labor for the army, in raising its and their own supplies, full occupation can be given them, and with this there will be neither occasion or temptation to them to emigrate to a northern and less congenial climate.

Judging by experience, no colored man will leave his home.  All possibility of competition from negro labor in the North is avoided in giving colored men protection and employment upon the soil which they have thus far cultivated, and the right to which has been vacated by the original proprietors, deeply involved in the crimes of treason and rebellion.  No great territory has been permanently reduced without depriving the leaders of its people of their land and property.  It is these that give power and influence.  Few men have commanding genius and talent to exercise dangerous influences over their fellow men without the adventitious aid of Money and property.  By striking down this system of compulsory labor which enables the leaders of the rebellion to control the resources of the people, the rebellion would die of itself.

– Published in The Union Sentinel, Osceola, Iowa, Saturday, October 17, 1862, p. 1.  The bottom of this page of the newspaper was torn diagonally from the lower left to the middle of the right.  This article was also published in the Ashtabula Weekly Telegraph, Ashtabula, Ohio, Saturday Morning, December 27, 1862, p. 1, and I have relied heavily on it to reconstruct this Union Sentinel article.

Diary of Charles H. Lynch: October 1, 1862

I was detailed with twenty members of our company under the command of Lieutenant Merwin to take boats and to row to a long bridge over a branch of the Patapsco River, there to remain on guard duty for ten days. It was about eight miles from the fort. It proved to be a picnic for us. Our duty was to guard the bridge. When off duty we tramped through the country for miles. It was a fine fruit section of Maryland. We bathed in the fine, clear salt water and white sandy beach. The ten days passed quickly when we were relieved and obliged to report to our company at the old fort, when we resumed our duty of various kinds, drilling and guard duty, also keeping the camp clean.

Our rations remained the same from day to day, fresh beef, salt beef, pork, hard-tack, and soft bread. Our supper remained the same every night, a cup of black coffee, a plate of boiled rice with very black molasses, called by the boys coal tar, two slices of soft bread. We became so tired of rice that we could not eat it

SOURCE: Charles H. Lynch, The Civil War Diary, 1862-1865, of Charles H. Lynch 18th Conn. Vol's, p. 10